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Texas Works: Training and Education for All Texans

Demographic Change and Education  |  CHAPTER 1

Chapter 1

Demographic Change
and Education

For the state’s economy to continue its strong growth, it will be critical that we work to improve educational attainment.


Official Texas population projections point to a less educated work force if the state continues on its current path. A less educated work force translates into lower earnings and fewer skilled workers. Businesses will have a harder time finding qualified employees to fill positions, and may even decide to locate in a different state where skilled workers are plentiful.

Increased training, especially in sectors that are in high demand and pay good wages, can boost individual earnings as well as the overall Texas economic picture. Texas’ public community colleges and technical schools are uniquely positioned to offer advanced training for students graduating from high school. Texas’ public two-year institutions present opportunities to learn skills quickly and at a reasonable cost. The jobs their graduates and certificate holders seek can be on the forefront of emerging fields that pay well and are in high demand.

Texas’ Growing Population

Texas’ population has grown more rapidly than that of the U.S. as a whole in every decade since 1850. The state continues to be fast-growing and ethnically diverse, and these population trends are expected to continue for at least the next 30 years, according to the Texas State Data Center at the University of Texas at San Antonio.1

This growing population can be a major strength for the Texas economy, supplying employers with a steady stream of qualified workers. Many other states are facing declines in their share of the working-age population. Texas, with its younger average population, can have a significant economic advantage. For the state’s economy to continue its strong growth, however, it will be critical that we work to improve educational attainment.

A Diverse Population

Texas’ racial and ethnic composition is changing dramatically. Its Anglo population has grown more slowly, declining as a percentage of the state’s total population, while the non-Anglo population, most notably the Hispanic population, has grown rapidly (Exhibit 1-1).

“We’ve turned down over $1 billion in contracts nationwide due to a lack of work force.”

– Mike Scott, Co-owner, H&S Constructors, Corpus Christi

Exhibit 1-1

Race/Ethnicity in Texas, 1980-2006

Racial/Ethnicity Group Percent of Population 1980 Percent of Population 1990 Percent of Population 2000 Percent of Population 2006
Anglo 65.7% 60.6% 53.1% 48.3%
Hispanic 21.0% 25.6% 32.0% 35.7%
African American 11.9% 11.6% 11.6% 11.4%
Other 1.4% 2.2% 3.3% 4.6%

Source: Texas State Data Center, University of Texas at San Antonio.



Exhibit 1-2

Projected Net Change Attributable to Each Race/Ethnicity Group Between 2000 and 2040, Texas*

The chart shows the percentage of total population growth for each ethnicity.  77.6% of the growth is Hispanic. 5.6% of growth is African American. 4.2% of growth is Anglo.  And 12.6% of the growth is other ethnicities.

*Using U.S. Census Bureau count for 2000 and Texas State Data Center 1.0 population projection scenario for 2040.

Note: Figures rely on the Texas State Data Center’s “high-growth” scenario, which assumes the the age, sex and race/ethnicity rates of net migration experienced in Texas from 1990 to 2000 will continue.

Source: Texas State Data Center, University of Texas at San Antonio.


In 1980, the Anglo population accounted for 65.7 percent of the state’s total population, but by 2006 its share had declined to 48.3 percent. The Hispanic population, by contrast, accounted for 21 percent of the state’s population in 1980 and 35.7 percent in 2006. The black population share declined slightly over the same period, from 11.9 percent in 1980 to 11.4 percent in 2006. The share attributable to the “Other” category, including persons of Asian and Native American descent, rose from 1.4 percent in 1980 to 4.6 percent in 2006.2

Under the Texas State Data Center’s “high-growth” population scenario – which assumes that age, sex and race/ethnicity trends in net migration experienced in Texas from 1990 to 2000 will continue – the Hispanic population will account for 77.6 percent of net population growth from 2000 to 2040, compared to just 4.2 percent for the Anglo population (Exhibit 1-2).

Even if net migration – domestic and international combined – falls to just half of its 1990-2000 level, the Hispanic population is projected to become a majority of the state’s population by 2020.3

Bilingual and English as a Second Language Education

In the 2006-07 school year, about 15 percent of Texas public school students (679,352) were enrolled in bilingual education programs. In the same year, about 16 percent of all students (731,304) were identified as Limited English Proficiency (LEP), an increase of more than 400,000 from the 1990-91 school year.8

Each Texas school district with 20 or more LEP students in a single grade is required to establish a bilingual education or English as a Second Language (ESL) program. Students in bilingual classrooms are instructed in two languages; typically, reading and writing are taught in their native language and math and science are taught in English. ESL classrooms do not use the native language in instruction, instead emphasizing rapid assimilation in English learning.

The state must provide bilingual education programs for qualified students in pre-K through the elementary school grades. From post-elementary grades through grade 8, districts must provide bilingual education, ESL or another transitional language program approved by Texas Education Agency. ESL instruction is required for grades 9-12.9 Students are tested using the Home Language Survey and placed in courses according to their answers.10

One alternative program, Dual Language Enrichment (DLE), has been studied for past several years by Dr. Richard Gomez, associate professor at the University of Texas - Brownsville. His findings indicate allowing students to use both languages in an academic setting results in higher test scores, graduation rates and higher college attendance rates.

Unlike traditional ESL and bilingual education, native English speakers participate in DLE programs to develop skills in the second language. Gomez compared two elementary schools participating in DLE with test results in their home district. He found that fifth-grade DLE students had a 94 percent passing rate on the reading portion of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS), compared with just 73 percent of all fifth-graders in the district. Gomez also found that middle school students in the DLE program outperformed the statewide average of Hispanic students on the TAKS test. He found similar trends with the math portion of TAKS.11

As Texas’ population of LEP students grows, so will its number of bilingual and ESL classes. Students who do not receive adequate acclimation in English are at risk of dropping out and of failing to succeed in the work force. Programs such as DLE may help ensure that Texas’ future work force has the language skills they need.


Population Change and Higher Education Enrollment

The state’s demographic trends have significant implications for all Texas elementary, secondary and postsecondary educational institutions, which can expect an ever-larger and more racially and ethnically diverse student body.

Texas’ higher education enrollment rose by more than 64 percent between 1980 and 2000.4 Much of this growth, however, occurred in the 1980s, when the last of the baby boomers (those born between 1946 and 1964) entered college. The baby boom generation currently accounts for 53 percent of all Texas college graduates in the work force and 43 percent of the total state work force.5

After 2000, enrollment at Texas’ public two-year colleges grew rapidly, rising 31 percent between 2000 and 2007. Enrollment at public four-year universities grew by 19.9 percent over the same time period.6 Assuming that current enrollment trends continue, enrollment at public two-year colleges is projected to rise by 15.8 percent between 2007 and 2020; four-year institutions will see a 10.5 percent rise (Exhibit 1-3).7 The enrollment gap between Texas’ two-year colleges and four-year institutions is widening. In 2007, two-year colleges enrolled 90,000 more students than the four-year institutions, and the gap is projected to grow to 130,000 students by 2020.

Exhibit 1-3

Texas Fall Enrollment by Institution Type, 2000 to 2007 and Projected 2010 to 2020

Institution Type Fall 2000 Fall 2007 Percent Change 2000-2007 Fall 2010 (Projected) Fall 2020 (Projected) Percent Change 2010-2020 Percent Change 2007-2020
Public University 414,626 497,195 19.9% 516,230 549,595 6.5% 10.5%
Public 2-Year College 447,998 587,244 31.1% 616,756 680,021 10.3% 15.8%

Source: Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board.


Under the State Data Center’s high-growth or “1.0” scenario, Hispanics will account for just over half (50.9 percent) of all students in Texas public colleges and universities by 2040, up from just 25.6 percent in 2000. Anglo enrollment will decline from 58 percent of all student enrollment in 2000 to just 28.7 percent by 2040. Black enrollment will decline slightly, from 10.7 percent to 8.1 percent; and “Other” enrollment will nearly double, from 5.7 percent in 2000 to 12.3 percent in 2040 (Exhibit 1-4).12

“Over the past five years, the El Paso Regional Economic Development Corporation has developed 6,800 jobs. The community college has directly and indirectly been involved with over half of these jobs.”

–Bob Burns, Vice President, Business Development, El Paso Regional Economic Development Corporation

Exhibit 1-4

Ethnic Diversity of the Population Enrolled in Elementary and Secondary School and Colleges in Texas, 2000 and 2040*

Exhibit 1-4

*Using U.S. Census Bureau count for 2000 and Texas State Data Center 1.0 population projection scenario for 2040.

Note: Figures rely on the Texas State Data Center’s “high-growth” scenario, which assumes
the age, sex and race/ethnicity rates of net migration experienced in Texas from 1990 to 2000 will continue.

Source: Texas State Data Center, University of Texas at San Antonio.

Text Alternative for Ethnic Diversity of the Population



A “College-Going” Culture

Studies suggest that a “college-going” environment – one in which parents have either attended college or support attending college, or in which, at minimum, the child attends a secondary school that actively supports college attendance – generally increases a child’s chances of enrollment.

A 2008 University of Chicago study concluded that the most important factor affecting college enrollment was a “high school (that) had a strong college climate.” The authors interpreted this to mean a high school at which “colleagues pushed students to go to college, worked to ensure that students would be prepared, and were involved in supporting students in completing their college applications.” The study concluded that “having a strong college climate seemed to make the biggest difference for students with lower levels of qualifications.”15

Students who complete the college application process also are more likely to enroll and complete a degree. The University of Chicago study concluded that “among [Chicago public school] students who aspire to attain a four-year degree, only 41 percent took the steps necessary in their senior year to apply to and enroll in a four-year college.” Furthermore, “students who applied to at least one four-year college were more likely to be accepted if they applied to three or more, and particularly six or more, schools. The effect of multiple applications was most significant for students who have lower levels of qualifications.”16


Educational Implications of a More Diverse Population

To date, the educational attainment of Texas Hispanics and blacks has lagged behind that of Anglos.

Hispanics made up the largest percentage of Grade 7 to 12 students in the 2006-07 school year – 42.8 percent – and also accounted for the highest share of student dropouts in that year, at 57.5 percent of the total. Black students accounted for 15 percent of Grade 7 to 12 high school students and 22.2 percent of those dropping out in 2006-07.13 In 2006, dropout rates for Texas teens aged 13-19 were higher for non-citizen immigrants (20 percent) than either U.S.-born citizens (5 percent) or naturalized immigrants (4 percent).14

Hispanic immigrants represented the majority of Texas adults aged 25 to 64 with less than a high school education in 2006. Hispanics and blacks also trailed other groups in their share of students enrolled in college or graduate and professional programs (Exhibit 1-5).17 More recently, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) reported that Hispanics and blacks accounted for about 54 percent of the population aged 15 to 34 in Texas in 2007, but only 39 percent of the state’s higher education students in Fall 2007.18 One way to increase overall educational attainment in Texas is to raise participation among Hispanic and black students in postsecondary education, in both two-year and four-year institutions.

Exhibit 1-5

Educational Attainment of Texas Adults Aged 25 to 64 by Ethnicity, Texas 2006

Exhibit 1-5

Source: Texas State Data Center, University of Texas at San Antonio.

Text Alternative for Educational Attainment of Texas Adults


Exhibit 1-6

Projected Change in the Texas Labor Force, 2000 to 2040*

Racial/Ethnic Group 2000 1.0 Scenario 2040
Anglo 58.4% 25.2%
Hispanic 27.5% 58.7%
Black 10.7% 7.9%
Other 3.4% 8.2%

*Using U.S. Census count for 2000 and Texas State Data Center 1.0 population projection scenario for 2040 Note: Figures rely on the Texas State Data Center’s “high-growth” scenario, which assumes the age, sex and race/ethnicity rates of net migration experienced in Texas from 1990 to 2000 will continue.

Source: Texas State Data Center, University of Texas at San Antonio.


Educational Attainment and Work Force

The racial and ethnic makeup of the Texas work force will mirror the change in the overall population (Exhibit 1-6). If the State Data Center’s “high-growth” scenario plays out, Hispanics will make up 58.7 percent of the state work force in 2040, more than twice their share in 2000.19

Based on the current educational characteristics of Texas’ non-Anglo population, the State Data Center predicts a decline in the overall educational attainment of the Texas labor force by 2040 (Exhibit 1-7).

Because this portion of the state’s population is growing rapidly, a larger percentage of the Texas work force – 30.1 percent – will have no high school diploma by 2040, compared to 18.8 percent in 2000, if current trends continue. The State Data Center also expects the percentage of high school graduates in Texas to fall slightly, from 29 percent in 2000 to 28.7 percent by 2040. And if policy in Texas limits high school educational options, it could exacerbate these trends, causing more students to lose interest and drop out of school.

The State Data Center further predicts a decline in the proportion of Texas’ work force with some college experience, from 28.7 percent of the population in 2000 to 23.9 percent in 2040. Similarly, the share of the Texas labor force with a bachelor’s degree is expected to decline from 18.2 percent in 2000 to 12.9 percent in 2040, as is the share with graduate and professional degrees.20

Exhibit 1-7

Projected Comparison of Labor Force Education Attainment Rates in Texas, 2000 and 2040*

Exhibit 1-7

*Using U.S. Census Bureau count for 2000 and Texas State Data Center 1.0 population projection scenario for 2040.

Note: Figures rely on the Texas State Data Center’s “high-growth” scenario, which assumes the age, sex and race/ethnicity rates of net migration experienced in Texas from 1990 to 2000 will continue.

Source: Texas State Data Center, University of Texas at San Antonio.

Text Alternative for Comparison of Labor Force Education Attainment Rates


A report from the U.S. Department of Education points to the distressing trend for many students to drop out of school before they get a high school diploma.25 In Texas, data allow us to compare the number of high school freshman in one year with the number of high school graduates in the year those freshman should have graduated from high school if they had graduated on time. The Texas graduation rate, calculated in this manner, was 65 percent for the class of 2006, the latest year for which data are available.26

While students drop out for many different reasons, a recent survey for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation found that nearly half of dropouts surveyed (47 percent) said a major reason for dropping out was that classes were not interesting. In addition, four out of five students surveyed said there should be more opportunities to inform students about making the jump between school and the working world.27

Giving students multiple pathways to graduation also could increase interest in school and thus encourage students to continue their education in postsecondary institutions. (See Chapter 3 for additional information.)

Unless Texas increases the average educational attainment levels of its non-Anglo populations, our future labor force will be less educated than today’s.28 This means that workers will earn less and have fewer skills, and businesses will find it increasingly difficult to hire and retain qualified applicants. If the Texas economy is to continue to thrive, this downward spiral of decreasing educational levels, a less educated work force and fewer skilled job seekers must be reversed.

First-Generation College Students

High school graduates whose parents never attended college, called “first-generation” students, often face an uphill climb. Some of their problems are relatively easy to imagine: lower expectations for higher education because of the parents’ example; parents who are less familiar and thus less helpful with the steps needed to get into college; and, often, lower family income due to parents’ relatively low-skill, low-wage jobs.

According to a 2001 study by the U.S. Department of Education, first-generation students surveyed in the eighth grade were more than twice as likely as their peers to expect to end their education with high school. About 55 percent of these first-generation eighth-graders expected to get a bachelor’s degree, compared to 71 percent and 91 percent of students whose parents had some college and had at least a bachelor’s degree, respectively. High school graduates with parents who did not go to college, moreover, were less likely to have taken advanced math courses, a factor with a strong correlation to enrollment in a four-year college. Only about half of first-generation students who had graduated from high school had more than marginal academic qualifications for a four-year college.21

The federal study also found that first-generation students were less likely than their peers to complete several crucial steps towards college enrollment, including taking the SAT or ACT entrance exams (for four-year schools); selecting and applying to colleges; and, if accepted, making the arrangements, including financial arrangements, to attend. Students whose parents did not go to college may receive less help and support from their parents with such preparations than their peers. And although many parents and students are uninformed about college costs and tuition prices, this is less true for families with higher income and education levels.22

The study identified other characteristics of first-generation students that point to difficulties even after they have entered college. They are more likely to be older than others in their classes when they start, and less likely to attend full-time for an entire school year. The 70 percent of them who work while in college are more likely to think of themselves primarily as employees rather than students. And more than 40 percent of first-generation students who are dependent on their parents come from low-income families.23

In all, students lacking the example, experience, financial support and encouragement of parents who have themselves been to college may find it more difficult to make the transition to higher education. According to the publication Inside Higher Ed, there are “more than 32 million adults in the United States [who] have never attended college.”24 In Texas, with an estimated 4.4 million adults who have not completed high school, it is clear that efforts to reach out to and assist potential first-generation students will have to increase if the goal of greater college enrollment is to be achieved.


An Opportunity for Texas

Public two-year colleges are in a unique position to provide direct work-related training to the state’s increasingly diverse student population.


Texas’ changing demographics will place new demands on the state’s educational institutions and increase the need for work force training. But our projected population growth also offers substantial economic opportunity to the state.

Public two-year colleges are in a unique position to provide direct work-related training to the state’s increasingly diverse student population. Community colleges typically have an “open door” policy, meaning all high school graduates are admitted; offer an education at a lower cost; offer convenient access; and allow part-time attendance, all of which make a postsecondary education available to more students.29

Texas’ relatively young, growing population offers it an economic advantage – if it can ensure that its workers have the education and skills that employers want. If Texas can continue to improve educational attainment, the state will have the right ingredients for a strong economic future.

Endnotes

  • 1 Texas A&M University System, The Center for Demographic and Socioeconomic Research and Education. A Summary of The Texas Challenge in the Twenty-First Century: Implications of Population Change for the Future of Texas, by Steve H. Murdock, Steve White, Md. Nazrul Hoque, Beverly Recotte, Xiuhong You and Jennifer Balkan (College Station, Texas, December 2002), pp. 5-7,10, http://txsdc.utsa.edu/download/pdf/TxChall2002Summary.pdf. (Last visited December 11, 2008.)
  • 2 University of Texas at San Antonio, Texas State Data Center, “Current Trends of Population Change in Texas,” by Karl Eschbach (San Antonio, Texas, June 25, 2008), http://txsdc.utsa.edu/presentations/ (last visited November 17, 2008.); and Texas A&M University System, The Center for Demographic and Socioeconomic Research and Education, A Summary of The Texas Challenge in the Twenty-First Century: Implications of Population Change for the Future of Texas, p. 6.
  • 3 University of Texas at San Antonio, Texas State Data Center, “Current Trends of Population Change in Texas.”
  • 4 Texas A&M University System, The Center for Demographic and Socioeconomic Research and Education, A Summary of the Texas Challenge in the Twenty-First Century: Implications of Population Change for the Future of Texas, p. 53.
  • 5 University of Texas at San Antonio, Texas State Data Center, “Current Trends of Population Change in Texas.”
  • 6 Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Participation Forecast 2007-2020 (Austin, Texas, January 2007), p. 3, http://www.thecb.state.tx.us/reports/PDF/1301.PDF (last visited November 17, 2008.) and e-mail communication from Janet Beinke, director of Planning, Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, August 28, 2008.
  • 7 Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Participation Forecast 2007-2020, p. 3; and e-mail Communication from Janet Beinke, director of Planning, Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board.
  • 8 Texas Education Agency, 2007 Comprehensive Annual Report on Texas Public Schools: A Report to the 80th Legislature from the Texas Education Agency (Austin, Texas, December 2007), p. 18, http://www.tea.state.tx.us/research/pdfs/2007_comp_annual.pdf. (Last visited December 11, 2008.)
  • 9 19 Tex. Admin. Code §89.1205 (2007) (Tex. Educ. Agency, Required Bilingual Education and English as a Second Language Programs).
  • 10 19 Tex. Admin. Code §89.1215 (1996) (Tex. Educ. Agency, Home Language Survey).
  • 11 Richard Gomez, Jr., “Promising Practices: Dual Language Enrichment for ELL Students K-12,” TABE Journal (Spring/Summer 2006), pp. 57-64, http://www.tabe.org/members/Promising_Practices.pdf. (Last visited December 11, 2008.)
  • 12 University of Texas at San Antonio, Institute for Demographic and Socioeconomic Research, “Population Change in Texas: Implications for Human and Socioeconomic Resources in the 21st Century,” by Steve H. Murdock, San Antonio, Texas, August 20, 2007, http://txsdc.utsa.edu/presentations/. (Last visited November 17, 2008).
  • 13 Texas Education Agency, Secondary School Completion and Dropouts in Texas Public Schools, 2006-2007 (Austin, Texas, August 2008), p. 46, http://www.tea.state.tx.us/research/pdfs/dropcomp_2006-07.pdf. (Last visited November 17, 2008.)
  • 14 University of Texas at San Antonio, Texas State Data Center, “Current Trends of Population Change in Texas.”
  • 15 Consortium on Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago, From High School to the Future: Potholes on the Road to College by Melissa Roderick, Jenny Nagaoka, Vanessa Coca, Eliza Moeller, Karen Roddie, Jamiliyah Gilliam, and Desmond Patton (Chicago, Illinois, March 2008), p. 4, http://ccsr.uchicago.edu/publications/CCSR_Potholes_Report.pdf. (Last visited September 30, 2008.)
  • 16 Consortium on Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago, From High School to the Future: Potholes on the Road to College, pp. 3, 5.
  • 17 University of Texas at San Antonio, Texas State Data Center, “Current Trends of Population Change in Texas.”
  • 18 Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, “Texas Higher Education Quick Facts 2008,” Austin, Texas, http://www.thecb.state.tx.us/Reports/PDF/1096.PDF. (Last visited November 17, 2008.)
  • 19 Texas A&M University System, The Center for Demographic and Socioeconomic Research and Education, A Summary of The Texas Challenge in the Twenty-First Century: Implications of Population Change for the Future of Texas, p. 46.
  • 20 University of Texas at San Antonio, Texas State Data Center, “Current Trends of Population Change in Texas.”
  • 21 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Students Whose Parents Did Not Go To College: Postsecondary Access, Persistence, and Attainment, by Susan P. Choy (Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 11–15, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001126.pdf. (Last visited October 9, 2008.)
  • 22 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Students Whose Parents Did Not Go To College: Postsecondary Access, Persistence, and Attainment, pp. 9, 16-18.
  • 23 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Students Whose Parents Did Not Go To College: Postsecondary Access, Persistence, and Attainment, pp. 19-21.
  • 24 “Many Adults Left Behind,” Inside Higher Ed (June 2, 2008), http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2008/06/02/adults. (Last visited October 9, 2008.)
  • 25 U.S. Department of Education, A Nation Accountable: Twenty-five Years after A Nation At Risk, April 2008, http://www.ed.gov/rschstat/research/pubs/accountable/accountable.pdf. (Last visited August 11, 2008.)
  • 26 Texas Education Agency, “2002-03 State AEIS Report,” http://www.tea.state.tx.us/perfreport/aeis/2003/state.html (last visited November 18, 2008); and “2007 State AEIS Report,” http://www.tea.state.tx.us/perfreport/aeis/2007/state.html (Last visited November 18, 2008.)
  • 27 The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, The Silent Epidemic: Perspectives of High School Dropouts, by John M. Bridgeland, John J. Dilulio, Jr, and Karen Burke Morison (Washington, D.C.), pp. iii and iv, http://www.civicenterprises.net/pdfs/thesilentepidemic3-06.pdf. (Last visited November 17, 2008.)
  • 28 Texas A&M University System, The Center for Demographic and Socioeconomic Research and Education, A Summary of The Texas Challenge in the Twenty-First Century: Implications of Population Change for the Future of Texas, p. 47.
  • 29 Arthur M. Cohen and Florence B. Brawer, The American Community College, 5th ed. (San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, 2008), p. 44-45.

Real People, Real Stories

Michael Green

Michael Green is a 48-year-old husband and father of five children, aged five to 17. His life has been a long and often difficult road that led from poverty to a satisfying new career as a radiologic technologist at San Antonio’s Brooke Army Medical Center.

But his story might have had a different ending but for his own perseverance, the support of his family – and some help from a remarkable community resource.

A troubled youth led to a prison sentence for Michael. Determined not to let that experience define the rest of his life, he earned a GED and completed a number of college courses while still incarcerated. After release, he worked at several low-paying jobs.

Tired of the grind, Michael set his eye on the radiography program at St. Philip’s College. Upon completing the prerequisite courses, he applied for the radiography technology program and was accepted… but didn’t know how he would pay for his training.

But then Michael saw a flyer about Project QUEST, a San Antonio workforce development program. Project QUEST paid for Michael’s education-related costs and also helped his family with rent, food, transportation, utilities – even emergency dental care.

Two years and many challenges later, Michael earned an associate degree in radiography technology. By the time he graduated, he had already secured his first professional job, which now pays more than $60,000 annually.

Today, Michael remembers the bad times but isn’t looking back. Two dates stand out in his mind – the day he received his degree and the day he could say he no longer needed public assistance.

Special thanks to Michael Green and the Industrial Areas Foundation for sharing this success story. For more information on Project QUEST, visit http://www.questsa.com/ or call (210) 270-4690.


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