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Article V:
Public Safety and Criminal Justice

Article V agencies include the Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ), the Texas Juvenile Probation Commission, Texas Youth Commission (TYC), Texas Department of Public Safety (DPS) and a variety of other agencies, boards and commissions concerned with deterring crime and protecting the safety of the Texas public.

This article includes the state’s fourth-most expensive individual program, the incarceration of adult prisoners within TDCJ’s Institutional Division, which cost more than $2 billion in fiscal 2002.

Total expenditures for programs in Article V agencies rose from $1.1 billion in fiscal 1990 to $3.6 billion in 2002, an increase of 214.8 percent. In real (1990) dollars, the total rose to $2.7 billion, a 133.5 percent increase. Article V accounted for 6.7 percent of all 2002 expenditures used in the statewide index calculation.

The review team created 31 separate expenditure indices for Article V agencies. About half of them used the general population as a workload measure. Several major spending indices, however, used more specific measures; the TDCJ incarceration index, for instance, was calculated in terms of cost per inmate.

The overall Article V expenditure index rose to 1.51 in 2002, marking a 51 percent increase in expenditures per workload unit since 1990.

The largest individual Article V indices for 2002 include:

17.84, for DPS disaster response expenditures. Spending under this index was significantly greater in fiscal 1999 through 2002 than in prior years of the study period, due in part to disaster relief funding in the wake of Tropical Storm Allison, which affected 31 Texas counties in 2001. The fiscal 2002 expenditure of $116.3 million was 2,917.6 percent greater than the $3.9 million spent in 1990. Real expenditures per 10,000 Texans rose 1,683.9 percent since 1990. This index accounted for 3.23 percent of all spending in the article.

5.07, for grant spending by the Juvenile Probation Commission. Total expenditures for the index rose from $18.1 million in fiscal 1990 to $132.6 million in 2002, a 634.3 percent increase. In real (1990) dollars, the grant total reached $98.2 million, a 443.9 percent increase. The number of juveniles referred to probation departments, the workload measure for this index, rose by only 7.2 percent over the study period, from 98,044 to 105,143. Real grant expenditures per juvenile referred rose by 407.2 percent. This index accounted for 3.7 percent of all Article V spending.

4.94, for “All Other” (non-salary) expenditures by the Criminal Justice Policy Council, reflecting an expansion in the agency’s responsibilities. Expenditures for this index totaled only $878,000 in 2002, however, and accounted for just 0.02 percent of all Article V expenditures.

3.69, for TYC construction expenditures. Total expenditures rose from $3.1 million in fiscal 1990 to $16.7 million in 2002, a 447.4 percent increase; real expenditures rose by 362.4 percent. Real expenditures per 10,000 Texans increased by 269.1 percent over the study period. Construction spending in general tends to fluctuate over time; fiscal 2001 expenditures, for instance, were just $1.3 million, far less than the 2002 total.

The indices with the largest share of Article V expenditures in 2002 were:

incarceration of adult prisoners within TDCJ’s Institutional Division, which accounted for nearly 56 percent of all expenditures. Spending in this area rose significantly, from $590.9 million in fiscal 1990 to $2 billion in 2002, a 241.7 percent increase. Real (1990 dollars) spending rose to $1.5 billion, a 153.1 percent increase. The workload measure for this index, however—the number of inmates—rose even more rapidly, from 48,320 to 145,696, a 201.5 percent increase. Real incarceration expenditures per inmate, therefore, actually fell by 16.1 percent between 1990 and 2002, producing an index of 0.84.

TYC operating expenditures, which accounted for 8.2 percent of all Article V spending. Total expenditures for this index rose from $74.6 million in fiscal 1990 to $294.7 million in 2002, a 295 percent increase; in real (1990) dollars, the 2002 figure was $218.2 million, for a 192.6 percent increase. The rise in TYC’s average daily population nearly matched funding growth, rising from 2,002 to 5,392 (169.3 percent). Thus, real operating expenditures per youth served rose by just 8.6 percent from 1990 to 2002, producing an index of 1.09 in 2002.

Two sizeable indices reflect other major TDCJ responsibilities:


TDCJ state probation costs rose from $73.9 million in fiscal 1990 to $217.1 million in 2002, a 193.9 percent increase; in real (1990) dollars, the growth was 117.6 percent. The number of probationers under direct supervision rose by 33.9 percent over the review period; real expenditures per probationer rose by 62.6 percent. This index accounted for 6 percent of all Article V spending and reached 1.63 in 2002.

TDCJ parole expenditures increased from $83 million in fiscal 1990 to $188 million in 2002, a 126.7 percent jump. Real expenditures rose by 67.9 percent, while the number of offenders under parole supervision rose by 11.3 percent. As a result, real expenditures per parolee rose by 50.8 percent during this period, producing a 1.51 index for 2002. The index accounted for 5.22 percent of all Article V spending.

Finally, DPS expenditures to promote traffic safety rose from $127.9 million in fiscal 1990 to $235.5 million in 2002, an 84.2 percent increase; real expenditures rose by 36.4 percent. This rate of growth exceeded that of the number of licensed drivers in Texas, which rose by 24.7 percent over the study period. As a result, real expenditures per licensed driver for traffic safety rose by 9.4 percent, producing a 2002 index of 1.09.