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Endnotes

[1]U.S. Census Bureau, “Census 2000 Brief”, December 2003 and http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0029/tab01.html. (Last visited August 9, 2006.)

[2]U.S. Census Bureau, “QuickFacts,” http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/meta/long_101614.htm. (Last visited June 14, 2006.)

[3]U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 3, PCT19. Place of Birth for the Foreign-Born Population: Texas (County).

[4]U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 3, PCT19. Place of Birth for the Foreign-Born Population: Texas (County) and Census 1990 Summary Tape File (STF-3), PO42. Place of Birth.

[5]Pew Hispanic Center, The Size and Characteristics of the Unauthorized Migrant Population in the U.S. (Washington, D.C., March 7, 2006), p. 4.

[6]Pew Hispanic Center, Unauthorized Migrants: Numbers and Characteristics (Washington, D.C., June 14, 2005), p. 11.

[7]Pew Hispanic Center, The Size and Characteristics of the Unauthorized Migrant Population in the U.S. (Washington, D.C., March 7, 2006), p. 1.

[8]Pew Hispanic Center, The Size and Characteristics of the Unauthorized Migrant Population in the U.S. (Washington, D.C., March 7, 2006), pp. 5-6.

[9]Pew Hispanic Center, The Size and Characteristics of the Unauthorized Migrant Population in the U.S. (Washington, D.C., March 7, 2006), pp. 10-11.

[10]Hunter, James and Craig Howley, Undocumented Children in Schools: Successful Strategies and Policies, September, 1990, pp. 1-5.

[11]Interview with Jeff Passel, Pew Hispanic Center, Washington, D.C., May 23, 2006. Passel said there were 140,000 undocumented immigrant children in K-12. Based on a 2004 GAO report, the Comptroller staff estimated 89.3 percent were in public school.

[12]U.S. General Accounting Office, Illegal Alien School Children: Issues in Estimating State-by-State Costs (Washington, D.C., June, 2004), pp. 12-13.

[13]Federation for American Immigration Reform, The Costs of Illegal Immigration to Texans (Washington, D.C., April, 2005), pp. 7-9.

[14]Urban Institute, Fiscal Impacts of Undocumented Aliens: Selected Estimates for Seven States (Washington, D.C., September, 1994), Table 4.18.

[15]Texas Health and Human Services Commission, Texas Medicaid in Perspective, Fifth Edition (Austin, Texas, June, 2004), p. 1-1.

[16]U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau. Child Health USA 2004 (Rockville, Maryland, 2004), p. 1.

[17]E-mail communication, Dave Wanser, deputy commissioner for Behavioral and Community Health services, July 5, 2006.

[18]Texas Department of State Health Services, Operating Budget For Fiscal Year 2006 (Austin, Texas, December 1, 2005).

[19]Ball, Andrea, “New Mental Health System Under Way”, Austin American-Statesman (October 20, 2004).

[20]Hegstrom, Edward “Mexico More Effective Than U.S. At Immunizing Children” Houston Chronicle (December 22, 2002) viewed at Vaccination News Home Page, http://www.vaccinationnews.com/DailyNews/December2002/MexicoMore22.htm. (Last viewed June 17, 2006.)

[21]Interview with Carla Contreras, Region 1 Education Service Center, Edinburg, Texas, July 27, 2006; and Laredo and McAllen ISDs, July 27, 2006.

[22]Texas Department of State Health Services, “School-based Health Centers,” http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/schoolhealth/healctr.shtm. (Last visited May 18, 2006.)

[23]Texas Association of School-based Health Centers, http://www.tasbhc.org/. (Last visited May 16, 2006.)

[24]Texas Department of State Health Services, School-Based Health Centers, http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/schoolhealth. (Last visited July 5, 2006.)

[25]Texas Department of State Health Services, Operating Budget For Fiscal Year 2006 (Austin, Texas, December 1, 2005).

[26]Texas S. B. 1, 69th Leg., First Called Sess., Texas Health and Safety Code, Chapter 61; and Caton M. Fenz, “Providing Health Care to the Uninsured in Texas: A Guide for County Officials.” The Access Project, September 2000.

[27]Texas Department of State Health Services, “CIHCP Directory of County,” www.dshs.state.tx.us/cihcp/CCD_0406.pdf. (Last visited August 8, 2006.)

[28]Tex. Health & Safety Code, § 61.002.

[29]Texas Department of State Health Services, County Indigent Health Care Program Provider Manual, (Austin, Texas, September, 2001); and Texas Department of State Health Services, CIHCP Directory of County, http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/cihcp/CCD_0406.pdf. (Last visited August 8, 2006.)

[30]Texas Department of State Health Services, County Indigent Health Care Program Provider Manual, (Austin, Texas, September, 2001); and Texas Department of State Health Services, “CIHCP Directory of County,” http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/cihcp/CCD_0406.pdf. (Last visited August 8, 2006.)

[31]Preston, Julia, “Texas Hospitals Reflect Debate on Immigration,” New York Times (July 18, 2006).

[32]Gordon, Jennifer, “The Health Insurance Gamble,” Dallas Business Journal (April 21, 2006).

[33]National Conference of State Legislatures, “Federally Qualified Health Centers,” http://www.ncsl.org/programs/health/fqhc.htm. (Last visited May 19, 2006.)

[34]National Association of Community Health Centers, Inc., “Fact Sheet,” August 2005, http://www.nachc.com/research/Files/IntrotoHealthCenters8.05.pdf. (Last visited August 8, 2006.)

[35]National Association of Community Health Centers, Inc., “Fact Sheet,” August 2005, http://www.nachc.com/research/Files/IntrotoHealthCenters8.05.pdf. (Last visited August 8, 2006.)

[36]Texas Association of Community Health Centers, “Fact Sheet,” http://www.tachc.org/Programs/Advocacy/2006%20Fact%20Sheet%20updated.pdf. (Last visited August 8, 2006.)

[37]CHASSIS, Interview Analysis, http://www.medicaider.com/medicaid/manager/ListInterviews.asp?next=AnalyzeInterviews.asp. (Last visited July 25, 2006.)

[38]The Access Project is a national health care policy initiative supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Anne E. Casey Foundation. For a lengthy discussion of indigent health care in Texas, see “Providing Health Care to the Uninsured in Texas: A Guide for County Officials,” Caton M. Fenz, The Access Project, September 2000.

[39]“Governor Schwarzenegger and Other Governors Call on Congress for More Federal Funding to Offset Criminal Alien Costs,” States News Service (April 5, 2006).

[40]U.S. Government Accountability Office, Information on Criminal Aliens Incarcerated in Federal and State Prisons and Local Jails (Washington, D.C., April 7, 2005), (GAO-05-337R).

[41]US/Mexico Boarders Coalition, At the Cross Roads: US/Mexico Boarder Counties in Transition (Washington, D.C., March, 2006), pp. 13-11 and 13-12.

[42]Interview with Faith Whitley, supervisor, Immigration Customs and Enforcement, Huntsville, Texas, May 19, 2006.

[43]Telephone interview with Jeff Baldwin, legislative liaison, Texas Board of Criminal Justice, Austin, Texas, June 6, 2006.

[44]Letter from Gary Johnson, executive director, Texas Department of Criminal Justice, to the Honorable Ray Allen, Chair, House Corrections Committee, May 20, 2003.

[45]Interview with Faith Whitley, supervisor, Immigration Customs and Enforcement, Huntsville, Texas, May 19, 2006.

[46]E-mail communication from Sherry Koenig, assistant budget director, Budget Office, Texas Department of Criminal Justice, June 28, 2006; and telephone interview with Jeff Baldwin, legislative liaison, Texas Board of Criminal Justice, Austin, Texas, December 12, 2005.

[47]“Governor Schwarzenegger and Other Governors Call on Congress for More Federal Funding to Offset Criminal Alien Costs,” States News Service (April 5, 2006).

[48]Legislative Budget Board, Current Correctional Population Indicators, Criminal Justice Uniform Cost Report Tables, Fiscal Years 2003-2004 (Austin, Texas, January, 2005).

[49]U.S. Government Accountability Office, Information on Criminal Aliens Incarcerated in Federal and State Prisons and Local Jails (Washington, D.C., April 7, 2005), (GAO-05-337R).

[50]Telephone interview with Jeff Baldwin, legislative liaison, Texas Board of Criminal Justice, June 16, 2006.

[51]E-mail communication from Bob Moore, executive director’s office, Texas Department of Criminal Justice, May 24, 2006.

[52]Huddle, Donald, The Net Costs of Immigration to Texas, March 1994, Carrying Capacity Network, Washington, D.C. and Urban Institute, Fiscal Impacts of Undocumented Aliens: Selected Estimates for Seven States (Washington, D.C., September, 1994).

[53]U.S. Government Accountability Office, Information on Criminal Aliens Incarcerated in Federal and State Prisons and Local Jails (Washington, D.C., April 7, 2005), (GAO-05-337R).

[54]U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance, p. 13-11

[55]U.S. Department of Justice, “FY2005 SCAAP Payment List”, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/BJA/grant/05SCAAP.pdf. (Last visited August 14, 2006.)

[56]The total reported in the US/MBCC report was $23.3 million, however, this report includes $21.5 million after subtracting about $1.8 million in medical care costs.

[57]Webb County was included although it was not the 15th highest grant recipient to ensure that border communities with the largest populations were included.

[58]Pew Hispanic Center, Estimates of the Unauthorized Migrant Population for states based on the March 2005 CPS (Washington, D.C., April 26, 2006).

[59]Migration Policy Institute, Migration Information Source: Age-Sex Pyramids, http://www.migrationinformation.org/DataTools/pyramids.cfm. (Last visited 5/3/2006.)

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