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Economic Development

Texas in Focus: South Texas

Economic Development

The South Texas region occupies a diverse landscape including beaches, ports, ranches and vibrant cities. Its diverse scenery is reflected in its economy. The region is home to an assortment of industries that make South Texas not only unique but also competitive.

Despite the waning importance of manufacturing in most parts of the U.S., several manufacturing industries have been able to retain jobs in the region. This is particularly true in the food-processing sector, whose products benefit from strong consumer demand in the region.

The region’s geographic proximity to Mexico makes industries allied with international trade extremely important. Its transportation sector, particularly truck transportation, is an engine of local economic growth as well as a lifeline to the national economy. Service industries, particularly education and health care services, also are important.

The sections that follow look at the state of the South Texas regional economy, including its structure and the competitive advantages it enjoys.

Bayfront Convention Center in Corpus Christi. Photo Credit: Broken Piggy Bank

Bayfront Convention Center in Corpus Christi

PHOTO: Broken Piggy Bank


Economic Trends

Exhibit 2 displays the estimated increase in employment expected for South Texas, its urban and rural areas and the state of Texas as a whole from 2002 to 2012. These expected changes are presented in the form of growth indices using 2002 as the base year, with an index equal to 100.

The MSAs of McAllen-
Edinburg-Mission and Laredo are expected to experience the highest job growth rates.

Exhibit 2

South Texas Region Employment Indices, 2002-2012

South Texas Region Employment Indices, 2002-2012

(South Texas Region Employment Indices, in Table Format.)


The metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) of McAllen-Edinburg-Mission and Laredo are expected to experience the highest job growth rates. From 2002 to 2012, employment is projected to grow by 38.5 percent and 34.5 percent for the McAllen-Edinburg-Mission and Laredo MSAs, respectively. For the South Texas region as a whole, the projected employment growth rate is estimated at about 29 percent, higher than the projected state growth rate of about 25 percent.

Some areas in South Texas are expected to grow at a slower rate than the state average. Corpus Christi employment is expected to grow at a rate of 21.7 percent over the 11-year period. The Brownsville-Harlingen MSA is expected to increase its employment by 23.0 percent, while the region’s rural counties should boost employment by 27.5 percent.

Exhibit 3 provides a more detailed picture of projected employment growth in the South Texas region. This exhibit displays growth indices, again with 2002 as the base year with an index value of 100, for various industries in the region. Employment numbers for these industries are presented at the 11-industry “supersector” level of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS).1

The educational and health services sector is expected to experience the most significant employment growth from 2002 to 2012.

Exhibit 3

South Texas Region Employment by Industry Sector, 2002-2012

South Texas Region Employment by Industry Sector, 2002-2012

(South Texas Region Employment by Industry Sector, in Table Format.)


The educational and health services sector is expected to experience the most significant employment growth from 2002 to 2012, with a final index value of 152.7, representing a 52.7 percent employment increase over the 11-year time period.

Other industry sectors expected to experience significant employment growth include financial activities and professional and business services, which are expected to post growth rates of 49.5 percent and 37.4 percent, respectively. Other regional industries expected to realize positive job growth rates by 2012 include the “other services” sector (18.3 percent) and the trade, transportation and utilities sector (29.2 percent).2

A supersector, which is identified by a two digit NAICS code, represents an aggregation of industries producing a set of related goods and services. At the most aggregate level, industries are classified into either goods producing or service producing supersectors. The goods producing supersector is composed of three supersectors pertaining to natural resources and mining, construction, and manufacturing. The service producing supersector, on the other hand, is comprised of eight supersectors that provide services ranging from trade, transportation, utilities, to information, finance, education, health, and government.

In contrast to this relatively robust growth, the agriculture, natural resources and mining sector is expected to grow jobs at a rate of just 2.4 percent over the study period. The only supersector expected to shed jobs is manufacturing, projected to lose about 2 percent of its jobs.

The South Texas footwear manufacturing industry has 11 times more workers than the same industry at the national level.

Economic Structure

All job growth depends upon the region’s economic structure. That structure comprises multiple characteristics, including natural resources, labor force characteristics and the composition and concentration of the region’s industries. This latter characteristic, which is alternatively referred to as clustering, is particularly important since industry clusters allow firms within the cluster to have access to more suppliers, skilled laborers, and the transfer of knowledge and information.3 These beneficial consequences that result from high industry concentrations give a region its competitive edge.4

One tool that can be used to identify industry concentration is the “location quotient.” An industry’s location quotient simply compares the share of a region’s economy attributable to an industry to the share that the same industry accounts for in the nation’s economy.

In essence, the share an industry accounts for in the national economy is seen as the “norm” for that industry, so comparing that norm with the share for a regional economy indicates whether that region tends to have “a lot” or “a little” of a particular industry.

Typically, a region will contain “a lot” of industries for which it has some natural or developed competitive advantage, based for instance on a local abundance of a particular resource, climate, an advantageous natural feature (such as proximity to a port, for instance), labor skills or some other factor.

A location quotient greater than one signifies that the region has a high concentration of employment in the industry compared to the same industry at the national level. This means that the region is “specialized” in that particular industry.

A location quotient of less than one indicates that the region’s concentration in the industry under consideration is less than that of the same industry at the national level. In essence, the region is less specialized in that given industry.

Exhibit 4 lists the Top 50 industries in the South Texas region with the largest location quotients, based on 2007 employment. These industries are grouped based on their respective NAICS supersectors and are ranked from the highest to lowest location quotient for each supersector.7

The location quotients for these 50 industries ranged in value from 1.83 for amusement arcades to 11.12 for the footwear manufacturing industry. In the case of amusement arcades, the level of employment in this South Texas industry is 83 percent more than its national counterpart. On the other hand, the South Texas footwear manufacturing industry has 11 times more workers than the same industry at the national level.

Exhibit 4

South Texas Largest Industry Location Quotients, 2007

Agriculture, Natural Resources and Mining

Description NAICS Code 2007 Jobs 2007 National LQ
Support activities for mining 21311 13,491 8.39
Other metal ore mining 21229 156 5.79
Hunting and trapping 11421 386 4.26
Oil and gas extraction 21111 5,856 2.89
Support activities for crop production 11511 8,037 2.84
Fishing 11411 1,306 2.63

Trade, Transportation and Utilities

Description NAICS Code 2007 Jobs 2007 LQ
Freight transportation arrangement 48851 7,906 7.52
Navigational services to shipping 48833 535 4.44
Other support activities for air transport 48819 2,273 4.39
Other support activities for water transport 48839 190 3.44
Interurban and rural bus transportation 48521 377 3.26
Refrigerated warehousing and storage 49312 789 2.91
Other petroleum merchant wholesalers 42472 1,104 2.89
General freight trucking, long-distance 48412 15,368 2.53
Farm product warehousing and storage 49313 136 2.48
Fruit and vegetable merchant wholesalers 42448 1,069 2.42
Petroleum bulk stations and terminals 42471 408 2.26
Meat markets 44521 613 2.14
Fruit and vegetable markets 44523 589 2.12
Water supply and irrigation systems 22131 430 2.10
Gasoline stations with convenience stores 44711 7,898 1.91
Automotive parts and accessories stores 44131 3,582 1.89
Used car dealers 44112 2,591 1.87
Beer and ale merchant wholesalers 42481 919 1.86

Leisure and Hospitality

Description NAICS Code 2007 Jobs 2007 LQ
RV parks and recreational camps 72121 758 1.98
Amusement arcades 71312 204 1.83

Source: Economic Modeling Specialists Inc.

Construction

Description NAICS Code 2007 Jobs 2007 LQ
Industrial building construction 23621 5,665 5.17
Other building exterior contractors 23819 2,043 5.08
Oil and gas pipeline construction 23712 1,375 2.68
Other heavy construction 23799 2,000 2.10

Manufacturing

Description NAICS Code 2007 Jobs 2007 LQ
Footwear manufacturing 31621 1,047 11.12
Petroleum refineries 32411 2,688 7.02
Tortilla manufacturing 31183 605 6.27
Flour milling and malt manufacturing 31121 393 4.09
Ship and boat building 33661 2,930 3.49
Sugar manufacturing 31131 227 3.15
Seafood product preparation and packaging 31171 620 2.78
Adhesive manufacturing 32552 267 2.11
Abrasive product manufacturing 32791 130 2.11

Financial Activities

Description NAICS Code 2007 Jobs 2007 LQ
Trusts, estates, and agency accounts 52592 876 4.88
Open-end investment funds 52591 1,002 2.95
Commodity contracts dealing 52313 225 2.47
Heavy machinery rental and leasing 53241 1,361 2.31
Office equipment rental and leasing 53242 212 2.16

Professional and Business Services

Description NAICS Code 2007 Jobs 2007 LQ
Telephone call centers 56142 6,484 2.96
Facilities support services 56121 1,644 1.84

Educational and Health Services

Description NAICS Code 2007 Jobs 2007 LQ
Home health care services 62161 52,470 8.50
Business and secretarial schools 61141 313 3.14
Services for the elderly and disabled 62412 9,365 2.76
Ambulance services 62191 2,277 2.44

Most Competitive Industries

While location quotients provide important information on regional industry concentrations, the portrait they paint is only a snapshot, a static measure for a particular point in time. To assess the competitive resilience of a regional industry, a more dynamic measure is needed. One such measure is “shift-share analysis.”

In this analysis, the change in an industry’s presence in a region is divided into three components: the portion attributable to the overall growth or decline in the nation’s economy (the national growth effect); that attributable to the industry’s national level growth or decline above or below the national growth trend (the industry mix effect); and that attributable to the region’s competitiveness as a site for the industry (the regional competitiveness effect).

Exhibit 5 lists the 50 most competitive industries in South Texas, based on shift-share analysis. The industries are ranked based on their change in employment between 2002 and 2007, and grouped based on their respective NAICS supersectors.

The home health care services industry posted the largest gain in employment between 2002 and 2007, with 15,319 jobs created. Based on the shift-share analysis, about 63 percent of this increase in employment (9,593 jobs) is attributable to the industry mix effect; in essence, this means that the national home health care services industry grew at a faster rate than did the national economy between 2002 and 2007.

Another industry that posted significant gains in South Texas employment is local government. From 2002 to 2007, this sector increased its employment in the region by 11,895. Roughly 61 percent of this change in employment was influenced by growth trends in the national economy.

The home health care services industry posted the largest gain in employment between 2002 and 2007, with 15,319 jobs created.

Industries comprising the region’s construction, manufacturing, and trade, transportation and utilities supersectors experienced job growth largely by virtue of the regional competitiveness effect. In the case of the industries comprising the region’s construction and transportation sectors, the competitive effect and the industry mix effect both played major roles; individual growth rates for these industries were larger than national growth trends for the same time period.10

Good Jobs for the Future

Shift-share analysis identified the region’s most competitive industries – those that possess the best probabilities for increased employment opportunities. What types of occupations can South Texans expect to find within these industries?

Exhibit 6 presents a list of “good jobs” for the future in South Texas. The exhibit presents occupation information by grouping occupations based on their educational requirements.

Occupations requiring doctoral and professional degrees command the highest median annual earnings, with a weighted average of $117,363 for the region. Occupations requiring educational levels ranging from associate to master’s degrees are expected to provide median annual earnings of about $20,000 more than occupations requiring only various forms of “on-the-job-training.”

For the purpose of this analysis, a “good job” is one for which the weighted average (using total job openings as a weight) of median annual earnings exceeds $29,243. This yields 140 occupations for the South Texas region.

There are 140 occupations in South Texas that pay at least $29,000 in annual income.


It should be noted that many occupations that meet the “good jobs” definition do not require a bachelor’s degree. There are a number of occupations which entail related work experience, “on-the-job-training”, or postsecondary vocational awards that provide good wages. For example, aircraft mechanics and service technicians, who typically have postsecondary vocational training, earn a median annual income of approximately $44,000. Occupations that entail long-term on-the-job-training, such as telecommunications equipment installers and repairers, could earn a median annual income of roughly $49,000. Other occupations that could earn similar annual wages, such as wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives and postal service mail carriers, require moderate-term and short-term on-the-job-training, respectively.

Businesses in the South Texas region generated more than $51.7 billion in gross sales in 2005 and $58.5 billion in 2006.

Exhibit 7 lists 25 occupations expected to have the highest number of job openings between 2007 and 2012. The occupation most in demand, personal and home care aide, is expected to create a total of 16,360 openings between 2007 and 2012 with median annual earnings of approximately $13,998.11

Nineteen of the 25 occupations with the most openings, accounting for about 76 percent of the total, do not require educational preparation beyond a high school diploma. Of the remaining six occupations requiring educational training beyond high school, four are in the field of education and require at least a bachelor’s degree.

Exhibit 7 makes obvious the positive relationship between educational levels and annual earnings. Of the 25 occupations with the most openings, the postsecondary teacher occupation has the highest median annual earnings, at $84,261, and the highest educational requirement, a doctoral degree.

Exhibit 7

Occupations in South Texas with the Most Projected Openings by 2012

Rank Description 2007 Jobs 2012 Jobs Total Job Openings Growth Replacement Annual Earnings
1 Personal and home care aides 43,066 55,939 16,360 12,873 3,487 $13,998
2 Retail salespersons 30,334 34,491 8,199 4,157 4,042 $17,909
3 Cashiers, except gaming 22,818 24,292 7,214 1,474 5,740 $15,101
4 Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food 24,792 28,216 5,771 3,424 2,347 $13,541
5 Customer service representatives 17,463 20,695 5,609 3,232 2,377 $19,968
6 Waiters and waitresses 12,611 14,463 5,228 1,852 3,376 $13,499
7 Elementary school teachers, except special education 18,887 21,896 4,789 3,009 1,780 $42,868
8 Office clerks, general 17,894 20,347 4,042 2,453 1,589 $18,699
9 Truck drivers, heavy and tractor-trailer 15,647 18,186 3,665 2,539 1,126 $29,432
10 Home health aides 12,545 15,661 3,652 3,116 536 $15,766
11 Registered nurses 11,853 14,281 3,395 2,428 967 $57,049
12 Maids and housekeeping cleaners 12,770 15,568 3,338 2,798 540 $13,104
13 Teacher assistants 12,699 14,862 3,101 2,163 938 $21,528
14 Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand 12,503 13,601 3,013 1,098 1,915 $16,682
15 Secondary school teachers, except special and vocational education 9,813 11,328 2,976 1,515 1,461 $45,434
16 Child care workers 11,521 13,905 2,896 2,384 512 $12,667
17 First-line supervisors/managers of retail sales workers 16,075 18,135 2,879 2,060 819 $29,408
18 Middle school teachers, except special and vocational education 8,752 10,523 2,671 1,771 900 $44,665
19 Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping cleaners 11,544 13,017 2,527 1,473 1,054 $16,578
20 Postsecondary teachers 8,599 10,351 2,447 1,752 695 $84,261
21 Secretaries, except legal, medical, and executive 14,302 15,381 2,153 1,079 1,074 $22,443
22 General and operations managers 11,124 11,987 2,107 863 1,244 $68,193
23 Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks 10,980 12,349 2,082 1,369 713 $25,189
24 Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses 6,684 7,693 1,915 1,009 906 $37,139
25 Receptionists and information clerks 6,532 7,582 1,829 1,050 779 $17,638

Sources: Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. and the Texas Workforce Commission.

Comptroller Assistance

One of the many functions of the Texas Comptroller’s office is to provide economic development information to local governments and other groups, and to analyze demographics, the labor force and other economic factors needed to generate economic growth in communities. Through the Texas EDGE (Economic Data for Growth and Expansion) Program, the agency can run economic models and provide analyses that identify occupational and industry trends and their effects on local and regional economies.

Exhibit 8

Professional Athletic Teams, South Texas Region

Team Name Location Professional Sport
Corpus Christi Rays Corpus Christi Minor League Hockey
Laredo Bucks Laredo Minor League Hockey
Rio Grande Valley Killer Bees Hidalgo Minor League Hockey
Corpus Christi Hooks Corpus Christi Minor League Baseball
Rio Grande Valley Vipers McAllen Minor League Basketball
Corpus Christi Sharks Corpus Christi Arena Football League 2
Rio Grande Valley Dorados McAllen Arena Football League 2

Sources: Central Hockey League, Minor League Baseball, National Basketball Association Developmental League and Arena Football League 2.

The Comptroller’s office also can provide local demographic data, identify business clusters and provide maps of regional infrastructure including highways, railroads and other public facilities. For assistance, please visit Texas EDGE or e-mail texas.edge@cpa.state.tx.us.

Since August 2007, the Comptroller’s office has responded to more than 200 Texas EDGE requests from city and county government officials, economic development corporations, private businesses and members of the media. Requests have covered many topics including demographics, economic development, economic modeling and taxes.

The Comptroller’s office also provides local governments with information about tax-related programs and identifies opportunities to raise funds for economic development efforts through property, sales and franchise tax revenues, exemptions and credits. The agency also provides information on special assessments and other opportunities related to disaster relief.

The Comptroller’s Local Government Assistance and Economic Development Division provides free risk assessments to local governments. These give local officials reasonable assurance that risks to local objectives have been identified and show the controls and mitigating factors associated with each.

Finally, the Comptroller’s State Energy Conservation Office (SECO) can help local governments slash their energy costs and adopt cost-effective clean energy technologies. SECO offers local governments a free preliminary energy audit of their facilities. The audit provides recommendations for reducing electricity consumption by improving the efficiency of heating and air conditioning systems and using more efficient lighting.


Exhibit 9

Gross Sales and Sales Tax, South Texas Region, 2005 and 2006

County Gross Sales 2005 Gross Sales 2006 Amount Subject to Tax 2005 Amount Subject to Tax 2006 Sales Tax 2005 Sales Tax 2006
Nueces $21,782,149,048 $24,672,083,386 $3,373,606,560 $3,643,767,387 $210,850,410 $227,735,462
Hidalgo $11,902,452,565 $13,159,835,600 $4,520,824,224 $4,898,683,353 $282,551,514 $306,167,710
Cameron $5,941,763,789 $6,560,908,853 $2,462,967,384 $2,614,886,838 $153,935,462 $163,430,427
Webb $4,897,434,141 $5,597,906,669 $1,791,904,731 $1,985,993,032 $111,994,046 $124,124,565
Other Counties $7,187,728,530 $8,512,428,715 $2,378,438,246 $2,851,738,576 $148,652,390 $178,233,661
Total $51,711,528,073 $58,503,163,223 $14,527,741,145 $15,995,069,186 $907,983,822 $999,691,824

Note: Numbers may not total due to rounding.

Source: Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts.

Exhibit 10

Retail Employees and Wages, South Texas Region, 2005 and 2006

County Employees 2005 Total wages 2005 Employees 2006 Total wages 2006
Hidalgo 28,068 $580,056,469 29,481 $619,499,726
Nueces 17,205 $394,219,996 17,311 $403,516,391
Cameron 15,554 $293,467,474 16,154 $314,811,379
Webb 11,501 $232,917,358 12,012 $247,882,547
Other Counties 17,719 $350,459,811 17,603 $366,145,596
Total 90,047 $1,851,121,108 92,561 $1,951,855,639

Source: Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts.

Industry Profiles


Endnotes

  • 1 U.S. Department of Labor, “NAICS Supersectors for CES Program,” http://www.bls.gov/sae/saesuper.htm. (Last visited June 25, 2008.)
  • 2 The Other Services sector represents all industries covered under the two digit NAICS code 82. These industries that are primarily engaged in the provision of repair and maintenance services for automotive, electronic, commercial and industrial machines and equipment. It also encompasses personal services such as laundry, dry cleaning, hair, nail, and skin care, funeral parlors, organizations that have religious, social advocacy, civic, political, and business purposes.
  • 3 National Governors Association, A Governor’s Guide to Cluster-Based Economic Development (Washington, D.C., 2002), p. 9, http://www.eda.gov/ImageCache/EDAPublic/documents/pdfdocs/nga_5fclusters_2epdf/v1/nga_5fclusters.pdf. (Last visited June 25, 2008.)
  • 4 Laila Assanie and Mine Yücel, “Industry Clusters Shape Texas Economy,” Southwest Economy (September/October 2007), http://dallasfed.org/research/swe/2007/swe0705b.cfm. (Last visited June 25, 2008.)
  • 5 Texas Historical Commission, “Texas Main Street Program Celebrates 25 Years of Success,” February 27, 2006, http://www.thc.state.tx.us/news/pressreleases/pr2006/pr227b06.shtml. (Last visited June 25, 2008.)
  • 6 Randy Reese, “National Main Street City: Gonzales Honored Nationally for Hard Work,” The Gonzales Inquirer, http://www.cityofgonzales.org/upload/w48ghHStJQ_National%20Main%20Street.pdf. (Last visited June 25, 2008.)
  • 7 U.S. Department of Labor, “NAICS Supersectors for CES Program.”
  • 8 Texas Department of Agriculture, “Ag Week Fact Sheet: Texas Packs a Punch,” 2006, http://www.agr.state.tx.us/agr/media/media_render/0,1460,1848_17066_8792_0,00.html. (Last visited June 25, 2008.)
  • 9 Texas State Historical Association, “The Handbook of Texas Online – King Ranch,” http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/KK/apk1.html. (Last visited June 25, 2008.)
  • 10 These transportation industries include general freight trucking, long-distance (NAICS 48412); general freight trucking, local (NAICS 48411); other support activities for air transportation (NAICS 48819); and other specialized trucking, local (NAICS 48422).
  • 11 Median annual earnings were estimated by multiplying the median hourly earning for the industry by 2,080 work hours. The exceptions to this estimation are the elementary, middle school, and secondary education related occupations. These occupations generally operate around nine months of work. These annual wages were obtained from the Texas Workforce Commission.
  • 12 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts estimates and North American Industrial Classification System, “Codes 711211, 711219 and 711310 – Professional Sports Teams and related Activities.”
  • 13 Simon Property Group, “La Plaza Mall,” http://www.simon.com/Mall/LeasingSheet/2546_LaPlaza_PropFactSheet.pdf. (Last visited June 25, 2008.)
  • 14 CBL & Associates Properties, Inc., “Mall del Norte,” http://www.malldelnorte.com/shop/malldelnorte.nsf/facts; and CBL & Associates Properties, Inc., “Demographic Summary,” p. 6, http://www.malldelnorte.com/shop/malldelnorte.nsf/demographpdfweb/demographics?opendocument. (Last visited June 25, 2008.)
  • 15 U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Fisheries- Southeastern Region, Identifying Communities Associated with the Fishing Industry in Texas, by Impact Assessment, Inc. (St. Petersburg, Florida, December 2005), p. 347, http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/sf/socialsci/pdfs/Texas_collapsed-Feb06.pdf. (Last visited July 1, 2008.) (Consultant’s report.)
  • 16 U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Fisheries- Southeastern Region, Identifying Communities Associated with the Fishing Industry in Texas, p. 351.
  • 17 U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Fisheries- Southeastern Region, Identifying Communities Associated with the Fishing Industry in Texas, p. 396.
  • 18 U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, “Commercial Fishery Landings,” http://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/st1/commercial/index.html. (Last visited July 1, 2008.) Custom query created.
  • 19 Data provided by EMSI, an analysis platform and database for economic research.
  • 20 U.S. Department of Agriculture and Texas Department of Agriculture, 2006 Texas Agricultural Statistics (Austin, Texas, October 2007), p. 25, http://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/Texas/Publications/Annual_Statistical_Bulletin/bull2006.pdf. (Last visited July 1, 2008.)
  • 21 U.S. Department of Agriculture, “Quick Stats: Agricultural Statistics Data Base,” http://www.nass.usda.gov/QuickStats. (Last visited June 30, 2008.) Custom query created.
  • 22 U.S. Department of Agriculture and Texas Department of Agriculture, 2006 Texas Agricultural Statistics, pp. 74 and 117.
  • 23 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, “Quick Stats: Agricultural Statistics Data Base.”
  • 24 U.S. Department of Agriculture and Texas Department of Agriculture, 2006 Texas Agricultural Statistics, pp. 74 and 103.
  • 25 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, “Quick Stats: Agricultural Statistics Data Base.”
  • 26 The Texas A&M University System, The Agriculture Program, “Cotton in Texas,” http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/extension/cropbriefs/cotton.html. (Last visited July 1, 2008.)
  • 27 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, “Quick Stats: Agricultural Statistics Data Base.”
  • 28 Texas A&M University, “The Texas Citrus Industry,” http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/citrus/l2286.htm. (Last visited July 1, 2008.)
  • 29 U.S. Department of Agriculture and Texas Department of Agriculture, 2006 Texas Agricultural Statistics, pp. 135 and 143.
  • 30 U.S. Department of Agriculture and Texas Department of Agriculture, 2006 Texas Agricultural Statistics, pp. 136 and 142.
  • 31 U.S. Department of Transportation–Bureau of Transportation Statistics, “Transborder Freight Data,” http://www.bts.gov/programs/international/transborder/TBDR_QA.html. (Last visited July 1, 2008.) Custom query created.
  • 32 Texas Department of Transportation, Texas Rail System Plan (Austin, Texas, October 2005), pp. 2-10 and 2-12, http://www.dot.state.tx.us/publications/transportation_planning/FinalRail.pdf. (Last visited July 1, 2008.)
  • 33 U.S. Department of Transportation–Bureau of Transportation Statistics, “Transborder Freight Data.”
  • 34 Texas Ports Association, “About Texas Ports,” http://www.texasports.org. (Last visited July 1, 2008.)
  • 35 American Association of Port Authorities, “U.S. Port Ranking by Cargo Volume, 2006,” http://aapa.files.cms-plus.com/Statistics/2006%5FUSPortCargoRankings.xls. (Last visited July 1, 2008.)
  • 36 Port of Corpus Christi, “General Information,” http://www.portofcorpuschristi.com/GeneralInformation.html. (Last visited July 1, 2008.)
  • 37 Port of Corpus Christi, The Local and Regional Economic Impacts of the Port of Corpus Christi, by Martin Associates (Corpus Christi, Texas, February 10, 2004) http://www.portofcorpuschristi.com/pdfs/Economic%20Impact%20Report.pdf. (Last visited July 1, 2008.)
  • 38 Port of Brownsville, “About The Port,” http://www.portofbrownsville.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12&Itemid=27. (Last visited July 1, 2008.)
  • 39 Port of Brownsville, The Local and Regional Economic Impacts of the Port of Brownsville, by Martin Associates (Brownsville, Texas, October 2, 2006) p. 4, http://www.portofbrownsville.com/images/stories/economic_impact_study_-_john_martin__2_.pdf. (Last visited July 1, 2008.)
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