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ENDNOTES

1. Interview with Art Burger, chair, EBT Industry Council, Electronic Funds Transfer Association, Austin, Texas, June 5, 2000.

2. Telephone interview with Don Johnson, Utah State WIC director, Salt Lake City, Utah, June 12, 2000.

3. Electronic Funds Transfer Association, EBT Industry Council, From EBT to ESD: The Migration from Electronic Benefit Transfer to Multi-Function Services Delivery Platforms (Washington, D.C., December 1999). (Unpublished draft.)

4. "Momentum Builds for Wider High-tech Card Deployment," Card Marketing (May 2000), pp. 12-15.

5. "Momentum Builds for Wider High-tech Card Deployment," pp. 12-15.

6. "Visa Smartcards," Card Technology, (April 2000) pp. S-3 to S-6.

7. "Card Combining Credit and Loyalty Set for September Launch in Canada," Card Marketing Magazine (July/August 2000), Vol. 4, No. 7, pp. 1-10.

8. Congressional Federal Register, part 272 & 274, vol. 65, no. 40, p. 10,676.

9. Interview with Lyn VanRaden, former Wyoming WIC staff assigned to the PayWest Project, Santa Fe, New Mexico, June 12, 2000.

10. Texas Department of Health, WIC Request for Offers, June 2000.

11. Western Governors' Association, Western Governors' Association Homepage, July 2000 (http://www.westgov.org/hpp). (Internet document.)

12. Presentation by Robin Williamson McBrearty, New Hampshire WIC director and project director for the New England Partners Project at the EBT-The Next Generation conference, sponsored by the Electronic Funds Transfer Association, Washington, D.C., November 7-9, 1999.

13. Interviews with Gene Austin, WIC EBT/ESD project coordinator, Supplemental Food Programs Division, Food and Nutrition Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, at Card Tech/Secure Tech Conference, Miami, Florida, May 1-4, 2000.

14. einberg & Vauthier Consulting, EBT Watch (Summer 2000), p. 7, and interview with Agnes Phares, New Jersey WIC Project, Trenton, New Jersey, June 14, 2000.

15. Weinberg & Vauthier Consulting, EBT Watch (Summer 2000), p. 6, and interviews with Gene Austin, May 1-4, 2000.

16. E-mail communication from Gene Austin, WIC EBT/ESD project coordinator, Supplemental Food Programs Division, Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, September 15, 2000.

17. Telephone interview with Linda Boyd, Oklahoma Office of Inspector General, State of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, May 30, 2000.

18. Interview with Dave Schneider, project director, and William Grossenbacher, director, Lockheed Martin, Austin, Texas, July 13, 2000.

19. Telephone interview with John Amatruda, School Technology Management, Inc., Laurel, Maryland, August 1, 2000.

20. "Navy: One card is smart idea," Government Computer News (October 25, 1999), p. 29.

21. General Services Administration, Smart Access Common ID Card: Final Requirements Document, (Washington, D.C., July 2, 1999), pp. i, 1, and 89 (http://www.fedeae.gsa.gov/smartcard.html). (Internet document.)

22. General Services Administration, Smart Card Project Viewer, "SmartData," July 2000 (http://www.smart.gov\GSA SC Project/SC Viewer.asp). (Internet document.)

23. U. S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, "Smart Cards in Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVC) Project," July 2000 (http://smart.gov/information/federal_highway/fhwasum.htm). (Internet document.)

24. General Services Administration, Smart Card Project Viewer, "SmartData," July 2000 (http://www.smart.gov\GSA_SC_Project/SC Viewer.asp). (Internet document.)

25. General Services Administration, Smart Card Project Viewer, "SmartData," July 2000 (http://www.smart.gov\GSA_SC_Project/SC Viewer.asp). (Internet document.)

26. "Momentum Builds for Wider High-tech Card Deployment," Card Marketing Magazine (May 2000), pp. 12-15.

27. "Transit Triumphs," European Card Review (March/April 2000), pp. 28-32 and "Higher-speed, Lower-Cost Transit Cards," Card Technology (April 2000), p. 22.

28. "It's a beginning: Smart Cards Hitch Ride on Mass Transit," Card Marketing Magazine (July/August 2000), vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 8-9.

29. "Transit Triumphs," pp. 28-32, and "Higher-speed, Lower-Cost Transit Cards," Card Technology (April 2000), p. 22.

30. "Transit Triumphs," pp. 28-32 and "Higher-speed, Lower-Cost Transit Cards," Card Technology (April 2000), p. 22.

31. "France Waves Its Smart Card Flag," Card Technology (January 1998), pp. 49-54.

32. Interview with Schlumberger staff, Austin, Texas, July 27, 2000.

33. Smart Card Industry, "Smart Card Applications," July 2000 (http://www.scia.org/aboutsmartcards/overview.html). (Internet document.)

34. Smart Card Industry, "Smart Card Applications," July 2000 (http://www.scia.org/aboutsmartcards/overview.html). (Internet document.)

35. Smart Card Industry Association, "Smart Card Applications," July 2000 (http://www.scia.org/aboutsmartcards/overview.html). (Internet document.)

36. The Biometric Consortium, July 2000 (http://www.biometrics.org/). (Internet document.)

37. FingerSec Security, "Company Overview," July 2000 (http://www.fingersec.com/profile.htm). (Internet document.)

38. Texas Department of Human Services, "Lone Star Technology: Lone Star Image System," July 2000 (http://www.dhs.state.tx.us/programs/LoneStar/imaging/index.html). (Internet document.)

39. Interview with Joe Williams, Gulf Coast Retailers Association, Houston, Texas, June 1, 2000.

40. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, "Aviation: INSPASS Information," July 2000 (http://www.panynj.gov/aviation/inspassmain.html). (Internet document.)

41. Interagency Task Force on Electronic Benefits Transfer, State of EBT and Direct Deposit in Texas, Austin, Texas, December 1997.

42. Texas Department of Human Services, Texas EBT Alternative Analysis, Austin, Texas, January 28, 1999.

43. Letter from Tom Phillips, associate commissioner, Texas Department of Human Services, to Cindy Alexander, Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, September 8, 2000.

44. E-mail communication from Hank Dembosky, Texas Department of Health, WIC program, to Cindy Alexander, Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, September 15, 2000.

45. Letter from Tom Phillips, associate commissioner, Texas Department of Human Services, to Cindy Alexander, Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, September 8, 2000.

46. Interview with Sally Anderson, Texas Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin, Texas, June 6, 2000.

47. Interview with Texas Department of Human Services EBT2 staff, Austin, Texas, June 8, 2000.

48. Telephone interview with R.D.Alford, marketing director, MediFAX, Nashville, Tennessee, August 25, 2000.

49. V.T.C.S., Transportation Code, Subtitle B, Chapter 521, Subchapter F, Sec. 521.126.

50. Interview with Jerry Miller, Texas Department of Health, and Randy Russell, Texas Department Human Services, Austin, Texas, August 22, 2000.

51. Texas Department of Human Services, "Documents/retailer comparison," July 2000 (http://www.dhs.state.tx.us/programs/lonestar/library/retaildocs/retailcomparison.doc). (Internet document.)

52. Telephone interview with Joe Williams, Gulf Coast Retailers Association, Houston, Texas, September 8, 2000.

53. V.T.C.S., Transportation Code, Subtitle B, Chapter 521, Subchapter F, Sec. 521.126.

54. Jason Cooke, CHIP director, Health and Human Services Commission, "Testimony before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Health and Human Services," Austin, Texas, August 25, 2000.

54. Interview with Jason Cooke, CHIP director, Health and Human Services Commission, Austin, Texas, September 11, 2000.

55. Interview with Jason Cooke, CHIP director, Health and Human Services Commission, Austin, Texas, September 11, 2000.

56. E-mail communication from Brooks Myers, Texas Workforce Commission, on direct deposit of UI benefits, August 1, 2000.

57. Memorandum from Sharon D. Elliott and Randolph Russell, Texas Department of Human Services, on direct/indirect cost for Medical ID's, July 14, 2000.

58. Memorandum from Nancy L. Beaird, chief operating officer, National Heritage Insurance Company, to Rodger Love, Bureau Chief, Bureau of Policy and Operations, Texas Department of Health, on eligibility transaction volume information, August 28, 2000.

59. Telephone interview with R.D.Alford, marketing director, MediFAX, Nashville, Tennessee, August 25, 2000.

60. Comptroller calculations based upon Texas Department of Human Services, EBT Facts and Figures, (http://www.tdh.texas.gov/). (Internet document.)

61. E-mail communications from Randy Russell, systems analyst, Texas Department of Human Services, Austin, Texas, August 3, 2000.

62. Interview with Sharon Elliott, project leader, Texas Department of Human Services, Austin, Texas, August 2, 2000.

63. Interview with Mary Whiteaker, Texas Department of Human Services, Austin, Texas, August 1, 2000, and vendor contract with Affiliated Computer Services, Inc.

64. Comptroller calculations using information provided by Sharon Elliott, project leader, Texas Department of Human Services, Austin, Texas, July 14, 2000; and "Texas Department of Human Services, Potential Options for Improving the Med ID (Form 3087) Process," prepared by Randy Russell and Sharon Elliott, Texas Department of Human Services (Austin, Texas, June 8, 2000).

65. E-mail communication from Randy Russell, systems analyst, Texas Department of Human Services, August 3, 2000.

66. Comptroller calculations using information from telephone interview with Viola Dugans, Florida Medicaid program, Tallahassee, Florida, August 15, 2000.

67. Telephone interview with Michael Mahoney, Texas Department of Human Services, September 13, 2000; and the Texas Department of Human Services' EBT 2 vendor contracts.

68. E-mail communication from Bill Stobie, Texas Department of Human Services, Austin, Texas, September 14, 2000.

69. Interview with Cile McNeese, MediFAX, Austin, Texas, July 11, 2000.

70. Telephone interview with R.D.Alford, marketing director, MediFAX, Nashville, Tennessee, August 25, 2000.

71. Office of the Attorney General, Child Support Division, A Cost Benefit Analysis of Using Electronic Benefit Transfers to Distribute Child Support Payments, (Austin, Texas, August 3, 2000).

72. Office of the Attorney General, A Cost Benefit Analysis of Using Electronic Benefit Transfers to Distribute Child Support Payments (Austin, Texas, 1997), pp.1-12.

73. E-mail communication from Blake Meyer, Comptroller of Public Accounts, August 15, 2000.

74. Comptroller calculations using information from "IV-D Program Statistics," Office of the Attorney General, Austin, Texas, May 2000.

75. Texas Department of Human Services, EBT2 Contracts, May 2000.

76. Telephone interview with Bill Stobie, Texas Department of Human Services, Austin, Texas, September 13, 2000.

77. Telephone interview with Bill Stobie, September 13, 2000.

78. Telephone interview with Bruno Lassus, Gemplus, Montgomeryville, Pennsylvania, August 17, 2000.

79. Telephone interviews with Bruno Lassus, August 17, 2000 and interviews with Matthew Zirpoli, sales manager, David Storch, and other staff, Schlumberger, Austin, Texas, July 28, 2000.

80. E-mail communication from Neal Kelly, Comptroller of Public Accounts, Austin, Texas, August 28, 2000.

81. State Auditor's Office, An Annual Report of Full-Time Classified State Employee Turnover for Fiscal Year 1999 (Austin, Texas, August 30, 2000) (http://www.sao.state.tx.us/reportsmn/reports/00/-707.html). (Internet document.) .

82. Telephone interview with Bill Stobie, Texas Department of Human Services, Austin, Texas, September 13, 2000.

83. Telephone interview with Bill Stobie, Austin, Texas, September 13, 2000.

84. E-mail communication from Phyllis Guillory, Fund Accounting, Comptroller of Public Accounts, August 16, 2000.

85. Memo from Steve Borochoff, Information Security, Comptroller of Public Accounts, Austin, Texas, August 11, 2000.