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The Energy Report

Endnotes

  • 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (Early Release), http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/production.html. (Last visited April 16, 2008.)
  • 2 U.S. Energy Information Administration, U.S. Crude Oil Field Production (Thousand Barrels per Day), http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/hist/mcrfpus2a.htm; and Texas Crude Oil Production (Thousand Barrels per Day), http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/hist/mcrfptx2a.htm; and U.S. Dry Natural Gas Production (MMcf), http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9070us2a.htm; and Texas Dry Natural Gas Production (MMcf), http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1160_stx_2a.htm. (Last visited April 16, 2008.)
  • 3 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “State Energy Profiles–Texas Quick Facts,” http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/state/state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=TX. (Last visited March 24, 2008.); and U.S. Energy Information Administration, Ranking of U.S. Refineries, http://www.eia.doe.gov/neic/rankings/refineries.htm. (Last visited April 28, 2008.)
  • 4 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Texas Dry Natural Gas Production (MMcf), http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1160_stx_2a.htm. (Last visited April 16, 2008.)
  • 5 Figures drawn from U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review 2001 (Washington, D.C., November 2002), p. 3, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/multifuel/038401.pdf; and U.S. Information Administration, Annual Energy Review 2006 (Washington. D.C., June 2007), p. 3, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/multifuel/038406.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 6 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “State Energy Profile–Texas.”
  • 7 U.S. Department of Energy, “Wind Powering America: Installed U.S. Wind Capacity,” http://www.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/windpoweringamerica/wind_installed_capacity.asp. (Last visited April 21, 2008.)
  • 8 The Wind Coalition, “Texas #1 Again as Wind Capacity Surges 59% in 2007,” http://www.windcoalition.org/news_page.php?tableName=News&id=49. (Last visited March 20, 2008.)
  • 9 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biodiesel and Air Quality, by Bob McCormick (Golden, Colorado, October 11, 2006), p. 3, http://biodieselcoalitionoftexas.org/documents/NRELSenateTestimony.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.); and Texas Comptroller calculation: (Btu content of biodiesel * Texas production); and interview with Allen Regehr, financial analyst, Young Farmer Loan Program and Biofuels Incentive Program, Texas Department of Agriculture, February 25, 2008. (Note: Data were for state fiscal 2007).
  • 10 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “State Energy Profiles–Texas Quick Facts.”
  • 11 U.S. Energy Information Administration, State Energy Data 2005: Consumption, “Table R2. Energy Consumption by Source and Total Consumption per Capita, Ranked by State, 2005,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_sum/html/pdf/rank_use_per_cap.pdf.; and “Table S1. Energy Consumption Estimates by Source and End-Use Sector, 2005,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_sum/html/pdf/sum_btu_1.pdf. (Last visited April 21, 2008.); and U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table 1.6: State-Level Energy Consumption, Expenditures and Prices, 2004,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/pages/sec1_15.pdf. (Last visited March 10, 2008.)
  • 12 U.S. Energy Information Administration, State Energy Consumption, Price and Expenditure Estimates, “Table 7. Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Selected Years, 1960-2005, Texas,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_use/total/use_tot_tx.html. (Last visited April 24, 2008.)
  • 13 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2007, p. 72, http://eia.doe.gov/oiaf/archive/aeo07/index.html. (Last visited April 28, 2008.)
  • 14 Texas Comptroller calculation based on data obtained from U.S. Energy Information Administration, State Energy Consumption, Price and Expenditure Estimates, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_prices/total/pr_tot_tx.html. (Last visited April 21, 2008.)
  • 15 Texas Comptroller calculation based on data obtained from Texas Workforce Commission.
  • 16 Interview with Sid Underwood, senior community relations representative, and Rafael Flores, site vice president, Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Glen Rose, Texas, April 12, 2007; and e-mail communication with John Izard, manager of compensation, benefits and HRIS, STP Nuclear Operating Company, January 30, 2008.
  • 17 Juliet Eilperin, “EPA Tightens Pollution Standards, But Agency Ignored Advisers’ Guidance,” Washington Post, Thursday, March 10, 2008.
  • 18 International Energy Agency, Key World Energy Statistics (Paris, France, 2007), p. 6, http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2007/key_stats_2007.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 19 In the U.S., oil is used for only a very small amount of all electricity generation, including only 2 to 3 percent of national electricity generation and less than 1 percent of electricity generation in Texas. (Data derived from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “eGRID,” http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-resources/egrid/index.html. (Last visited April 29, 2008.) The cost of electricity generation from oil is included primarily for comparative purposes.
  • 20 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table F9a: Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates by Sector, 2005”, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_fuel/html/fuel_use_pa.html; “Table F9b: Total Petroleum Price and Expenditure Estimates by Sector, 2005,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_fuel/html/pdf/fuel_pr_pa.pdf; and “Table F6: Liquefied Petroleum Gases Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates by Sector, 2005,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_fuel/html/fuel_lg.html. (Last visited March 20, 2008.)
  • 21 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table F9b: Total Petroleum Price and Expenditure Estimates by Sector, 2005.”
  • 22 Retail price, including taxes. See U.S. Department of Energy, Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report (Washington, D.C., October 2007), p. 3, http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/pdfs/afpr_oct_07.pdf. (Last visited March 24, 2008.)
  • 23 U.S. Department of Energy, Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, p. 3.
  • 24 Comptroller calculation.
  • 25 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Spot Prices,” http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_spt_s1_d.htm. (Last visited April 18, 2008.)
  • 26 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, “Time Series of Oil and Gas GSP” and “Time Series of Oil and Gas Wages and Employment,” Austin, Texas, November 1, 2007. (Internal data with supplementary data from U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis.)
  • 27 E-mail correspondence with Kelly Holligan, industrial team leader, Wastewater Permitting Section, Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Austin, Texas, October 23, 2007; and e-mail correspondence with Jon Edwards, technical specialist, Rule Registrations Section, Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Austin, Texas, October 5, 2007.
  • 28 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “U.S Refineries Operable Capacity,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/neic/rankings/refineries.htm. (Last visited January 31, 2008.)
  • 29 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Refinery Net Production” database: by area and annual thousand barrels per day for 2005-2006 data; by area and monthly thousand barrels per day for 2007 data, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_refp2_dc_nus_mbblpd_a.htm. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 30 Independent Petroleum Association of America, 2007 Oil and Natural Gas Issues Briefing Book (Washington, D.C.) p. 10, http://www.ipaa.org/reports/2007BriefingBook.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 31 The Handbook of Texas, “Public Lands,” http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/PP/gzp2.html (last visited April 28, 2008); and Texas General Land Office, “About the Land Office,” http://www.glo.state.tx.us/about/landoffice.html. (Last visited April 28, 2008.)
  • 32 Based on Comptroller calculations: (Average Btu content of Crude Oil * Texas Crude Oil Reserves); U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Energy Calculator: Common Units and Conversions,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/science/energy_calculator.html#oilcalc (Last visited March 10, 2008); and U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production,” http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_crd_pres_a_EPC0_R01_mmbbl_a.htm. (Last visited January 18, 2008.)
  • 33 Based on Comptroller calculations: (Average Btu content of Crude Oil * Texas Crude Oil Production); U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Energy Calculator: Common Units and Conversions;” and U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Crude Oil Production,” http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_crd_crpdn_adc_mbbl_a.htm. (Last visited January 18, 2008.)
  • 34 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table F9a: Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates by Sector, 2005.”
  • 35 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “State Energy Profiles–Texas Quick Facts.”
  • 36 Texas Department of Transportation, “Fast Facts and Info 2007,” ftp://ftp.dot.state.tx.us/pub/txdot-info/vtr/vtr_fast_facts_2007.pdf. (Last visited January 18, 2008.)
  • 37 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries,” http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_cap1_a_(na)_8D0_BpCD_a.htm. (Last visited January 18, 2008.)
  • 38 In the U.S., oil is used for only a very small amount of all electricity generation, including only 2 –two 3 percent of national electricity generation and less than 1 percent of electricity generation in Texas (based on figures from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s eGRID database at http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-resources/egrid/index.html). The environmental impact of electricity generation from oil is included primarily for comparative purposes.
  • 39 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?” http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-and-you/affect/index.html. (Last visited January 15, 2008.); and “Calculating Emissions of Greenhouse Gases: Key Facts and Figures,” http://epa.gov/oms/climate/420f05003.htm. (Last visited January 15, 2008.) Conversions from lbs/gallon to lbs/MMBtu performed by Data Services Division, Comptroller’s office.
  • 40 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 41 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources, p. 65.
  • 42 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources (Washington, D.C., December 2006), p. 57, http://www.sandia.gov/energy-water/docs/121-RptToCongress-EWwEIAcomments-FINAL.pdf. (Last visited January 25, 2008.)
  • 43 The National Academy of Sciences, Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects (Washington, D.C., 2003), p. 2, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309084385. (Last visited April 28, 2008)
  • 44 U.S. Department of Energy, Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, p. 14.
  • 45 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Basic Petroleum Statistics,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/neic/quickfacts/quickoil.html. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 46 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “State Energy Profiles: Texas Quick Facts.”
  • 47 Electric Reliability Council of Texas, Electric Reliability and Resource Adequacy Update (Austin, Texas, July 13, 2006), p. 13, http://www.ercot.com/news/presentations/2006/. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 48 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table F10a: Natural Gas Consumption Estimates by Sector, 2005,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_fuel/html/fuel_use_ng.html; and “Table F10b: Natural Gas Price and Expenditure Estimates by Sector, 2005,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_fuel/html/fuel_pr_ng.html. (Last visited January 29, 2008.)
  • 49 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table F10b: Natural Gas Price and Expenditure Estimates by Sector, 2005.”
  • 50 U.S. Department of Energy, Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, p. 3 and Comptroller calculations.
  • 51 U.S. Department of Energy, Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, p. 3.
  • 52 Comptroller calculation.
  • 53 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, “Time Series of Oil and Gas GSP” and “Time Series of Oil and Gas Wages and Employment,” Austin, Texas, November 1, 2007. (Internal data with supplementary data from U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis.)
  • 54 E-mail correspondence with Kelly Holligan; and e-mail correspondence with Jon Edwards.
  • 55 The Handbook of Texas, “Public Lands,” http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/PP/gzp2.html; and Texas General Land Office, “About the Land Office,” http://www.glo.state.tx.us/about/landoffice.html. (Last visited April 28, 2008.)
  • 56 Texas Comptroller calculation: (Average Btu content of Natural Gas Texas Natural Gas Reserves); U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Energy Calculator - Common Units and Conversions”; and U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31,” http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/ng/ng_enr_sum_a_EPG0_R11_BCF_a.htm. (Last visited January 18, 2008.)
  • 57 Texas Comptroller calculation: (Average Btu content of Natural Gas * Texas Natural Gas Production); U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Energy Calculator: Common Units and Conversions,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/science/energy_calculator.html#natgascalc (Last visited March 10, 2008); and U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production,” http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/ng/ng_prod_sum_a_EPG0_FGW_mmcf_a.htm. (Last visited January 18, 2008.)
  • 58 Texas Comptroller calculation: (Average Btu content of Natural Gas * Texas Natural Gas Consumption); U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Energy Calculator - Common Units and Conversions”; and U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Natural Gas Consumption by End Use,” http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/ng/ng_cons_sum_a_EPG0_VC0_mmcf_a.htm. (Last visited January 18, 2008.)
  • 59 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “State Energy Profiles: Texas Quick Facts.”
  • 60 Texas Department of Transportation, “Alternative Fuels,” http://www.dot.state.tx.us/services/general_services/alternative_fuels.htm. (Last visited January 18, 2008.)
  • 61 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 62 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 63 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 64 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources, p. 65.
  • 65 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources, p. 65.
  • 66 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 67 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Energy Calculator–Common Units and Conversions.”
  • 68 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “State Energy Profiles: Texas Quick Facts.”
  • 69 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Basic Natural Gas Statistics,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/neic/quickfacts/quickgas.html. (Last visited April 24, 2008.) U.S. consumption was 21.86 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) and imports were 4.19 Tcf or 19.15 percent.
  • 70 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table F6: Liquefied Petroleum Gases Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates by Sector, 2005.”
  • 71 U.S. Department of Energy, Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, p. 3.
  • 72 U.S. Department of Energy, Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, p. 3.
  • 73 Comptroller calculation.
  • 74 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Weekly Heating Oil and Propane Prices, March 17, 2008, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_wtr_dcus_nus_w.htm (Last visited April 23, 2008.)
  • 75 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts and Texas Workforce Commission, “2006 NAICS Report,” Austin, Texas, June 13, 2007. (Computer printout.)
  • 76 Texas Railroad Commission, “State-Level Incentives for LPG Use,” Powerpoint presentation at LPG Workshop, Mexico City, November 7, 2003.
  • 77 Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Study of the Propane Industry’s Impact on the U.S. and State Economics (Arlington, Virginia, November 2004), pp. 18 and 62, http://www.npga.org/files/public/Economic_Study_Propane_Value_Final.pdf. (Last visited March 20, 2008.)
  • 78 Based on Comptroller calculations: (Average Btu content of Natural Gas * Texas LPG Production); U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Glossary: Btu Conversion Factors,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/glossary/glossary_b.htm (Last visited March 10, 2008); U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Refinery Net Production–Texas Gulf Coast,” http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_refp2_dc_r3b_mbbl_a.htm; and U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Refinery Net Production–Texas Inland,” http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_refp2_dc_r3a_mbbl_a.htm. (Last visited March 10, 2008.)
  • 79 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table F6: Liquefied Petroleum Gases Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates by Sector, 2005.”
  • 80 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “State Energy Profiles–Texas Quick Facts.”
  • 81 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table F6: Liquefied Petroleum Gases Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates by Sector, 2005.”
  • 82 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, Fuel and Energy Source Codes and Emission Coefficients,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/coefficients.html. (Last visited January 16, 2008.)
  • 83 Conoco Phillips, “LPG is Best Green Option,” http://www.conocophillips.co.uk/stations/autogas/Latest_News/LPG_is_best_green_option.htm. (Last visited January 16, 2008.)
  • 84 U.S. Department of Energy, “Just the Basics: Liquefied Petroleum Gas,” August 2003, p. 1, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/basics/jtb_lpg.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 85 U.S. Department of Energy, “Just the Basics: Liquefied Petroleum Gas,” p. 1.
  • 86 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Energy Calculator–Common Units and Conversions.”
  • 87 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, by Census Division and State,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/acr/table26.html. (Last visited January 18, 2008.)
  • 88 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table F12b: Coal and Coal Coke Price and Expenditure Estimates by Sector, 2005,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_fuel/html/fuel_pr_cl.html. (Last visited January 29, 2008.)
  • 89 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table F12a: Coal and Coal Coke Consumption Estimates by Sector, 2005,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_fuel/html/fuel_use_cl.html; and U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table F12b: Coal and Coal Coke Price and Expenditure Estimates by Sector, 2005.” (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 90 Comptroller calculation.
  • 91 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Coal Mining Productivity by State and Mine Type,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/acr/table21.html. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 92 E-mail correspondence with Kelly Holligan; and e-mail correspondence with Jon Edwards.
  • 93 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Electric Power Annual 2006–State Data Tables, Net Generation by State by Type of Producer by Energy Source,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sprdshts.html. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 94 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Mines by State,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/acr/table14.html. (Last visited January 18, 2008.)
  • 95 Based on Comptroller calculations (annual Texas production * average Btu content of lignite); U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Glossary: Lignite,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/glossary/glossary_l.htm (last visited March 9, 2008); and U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/acr/table1.html. (Last visited March 9, 2008.)
  • 96 Based on Comptroller calculations: [(annual Texas production * average Btu content of lignite) + (annual Texas consumption – annual Texas production)] * average Btu content of subbituminous; U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Glossary: Subbituminous coal,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/glossary/glossary_s.htm (last visited March 9, 2008); and U.S. Energy Information Administration, “U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, by Census Division and State,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/acr/table26.html. (Last visited March 9, 2008.)
  • 97 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Coal Conversion–Pathway to Alternate Fuels, by C. Lowell Miller (Washington, D.C., March 28, 2007), pp. 8, 18, 20, http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/conf/miller/miller.ppt. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 98 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 99 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 100 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 101 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 102 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources, p. 65.
  • 103 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources, p. 65.
  • 104 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 105 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Glossary: Lignite,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/glossary/glossary_l.htm;” “Glossary: Subbituminous coal?,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/glossary/glossary_s.htm. (Last visited March 24, 2008.)
  • 106 Interview with Paul Goranson, VP Operations Manager, Alta Mesa Project, Mestena Uranium, Rachal, Texas, June 22, 2007; and interview with Mike Pelizza, VP for Health, Safety and Environmental Affairs, Uranium Resources, Inc., Lewisville, Texas, July 24, 2007.
  • 107 Public Citizen, “Nuclear’s Fatal Flaws: Safety,” http://www.citizen.org/cmep/energy_enviro_nuclear/nuclear_power_plants/articles.cfm?ID=13452. (Last visited March 26, 2008.)
  • 108 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table F16: Nuclear Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates by Sector, 2005,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_fuel/html/fuel_nu.html. (Last visited January 29, 2008.)
  • 109 Comptroller calculation.
  • 110 Interview with Sid Underwood, senior community relations representative, and Rafael Flores, site vice president, Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Glen Rose, Texas, April 12, 2007; and e-mail communication with John Izard, manager of compensation, benefits and HRIS, STP Nuclear Operating Company, January 30, 2008.
  • 111 E-mail correspondence with Kelly Holligan; and e-mail correspondence with Jon Edwards.
  • 112 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, “Expected New Nuclear Power Plant Applications,” http://www.nrc.gov/reactors/new-licensing/new-licensing-files/expected-new-rx-applications.pdf. (Last visited March 27, 2008.)
  • 113 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “U.S. Uranium Reserves by State,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/reserves/uresst.html. (Last visited January 18, 2008.)
  • 114 Interview with Mike Pelizza, VP for Health, Safety and Environmental Affairs, Uranium Resources, Inc., Lewisville, Texas, July 24, 2007; interview with Paul Goranson, VP and Alta Mesa operations manager, Mesteña Uranium, L.L.C., Corpus Christi, Texas, June 22, 2007; and Comptroller calculations.
  • 115 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table 5: Electric Power Industry Generation by Primary Energy Source, 1990 through 2006 (Megawatt-hours),” http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/st_profiles/sept05tx.xls. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 116 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 117 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources, p. 65.
  • 118 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources, pp. 54 and 64-65.
  • 119 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 120 TXU, “Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station,” http://www.txucorp.com/power/plants/comanche_peak.aspx. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 121 World Nuclear Association, “World Uranium Mining,” http://db.world-nuclear.org/info/inf23.html. (Last visited January 18, 2008.)
  • 122 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Uranium Purchased by Owners and Operators of U.S. Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/umar/summarytable1.html. (Last visited January 18, 2008.)
  • 123 Comptroller calculation.
  • 124 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, “Renewable Energy Technology Opportunities: Responding to Global Energy Challenges,” by Dan E. Arvizu, http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy07osti/41107.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 125 E-mail correspondence with Kelly Holligan.
  • 126 U.S. Department of Energy, Report to Congress on Assessment of Potential Impact of Concentrating Solar Power for Electricity Generation (Golden, Colorado, February 2007), p. 7. http://www.nrel.gov/csp/troughnet/pdfs/41233.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 127 Austin Energy, City of Austin, Austin Energy: Tool for Analysis of Economic Development Benefits for Solar Manufacturing & Installation, by Christy Herig, Segue Energy Consulting, LLC (Austin, Texas, May 11, 2006), p. 2. www.austinenergy.com/About%20Us/ Newsroom/Reports/analysisToolEcoDevSolar.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 128 Solar Energy Industries Association, Our Solar Power Future: The U.S. Photovoltaic Industry Roadmap Through 2030 and Beyond (Washington, D.C., September 2004), http://www.seia.org/roadmap.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 129 State Energy Conservation Office, “Texas Solar Energy,” http://www.seco.cpa.state.tx.us/re_solar.htm. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 130 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 131 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources, p. 65.
  • 132 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 133 Union of Concerned Scientists, “How Solar Energy Works,” http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/renewable_energy_basics/how-solar-energy-works.html (last visited February 11, 2008); and U.S. Department of Energy, “Solar Radiation Basics,” http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/renewable_energy/solar/index.cfm/mytopic=50012. (Last visited February 11, 2008.)
  • 134 Electric Reliability Council of Texas “Report on Existing and Potential Electric System Constraints and Needs,” December 2007, p. 21. http://www.ercot.com/news/presentations/2008/35171_ERCOT_2007_Transmission_Constraints_Needs_Report.pdf (Last visited April 4, 2008).
  • 135 Comptroller calculation.
  • 136 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Wind Energy Update by Larry Flowers (Golden, Colorado, February 2008), p. 23, http://www.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/windpoweringamerica/pdfs/wpa/wpa_update.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 137 Texas State Energy Conservation Office, “Texas Wind Energy Resources,” http://www.infinitepower.org/reswind.htm. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 138 Electric Reliability Council of Texas, “2007 Report on the Capacity, Demand, and Reserves in the ERCOT Region: Summer Summary December Update,” http://www.ercot.com/news/presentations/2007/ERCOT_2007_CDR_December_Update_FINAL.xls. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 139 Electric Reliability Council of Texas, “Energy by Fuel Type for 2007,” Austin, Texas, January 31, 2008. (Spreadsheet.)
  • 140 E-mail communication from Linda Shirey, senior planning analyst, Electric Reliability Council of Texas, June 12, 2007.
  • 141 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 142 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 143 Texas State Energy Conservation Office, “Growing Crops for Fuel,” http://www.seco.cpa.state.tx.us/re_biomass-crops.htm. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 144 National Commission on Energy Policy Forum, Cellulosic Ethanol Fact Sheet, by Lee R. Lynd, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College (Washington, D.C., June 2003), pp. 1-2, http://www.energycommission.org/files/finalReport/IV.4.c%20-%20Cellulosic%20Ethanol%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf. (Last visited April 28, 2008.)
  • 145 U.S. Department of Energy, Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, p. 3.
  • 146 U.S. Department of Energy, Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, p. 3.
  • 147 Comptroller calculation.
  • 148 E-mail correspondence with Kelly Holligan; and e-mail correspondence with Jon Edwards.
  • 149 U.S. Department of Agriculture, An Analysis of the Effects of an Expansion in Biofuel Demand on U.S. Agriculture (Washington, D.C., May 2007), p. 3, www.usda.gov/oce/newsroom/chamblissethanol5-8-07.doc. (Last visited April 28, 2008.)
  • 150 Renewable Fuels Association, “Industry Statistics,” http://www.ethanolrfa.org/industry/statistics. (Last visited April 3, 2008.)
  • 151 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table F13a: Wood, Waste, and Ethanol Consumption Estimates by Sector, 2005,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_fuel/html/fuel_use_ww_en.html. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 152 U.S. Department of Energy, “Alternative Fuel Station Locator Results,” http://afdcmap2.nrel.gov/locator/FindNearResult.asp. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 153 Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers, “Alternative Fuel Country,” http://www.discoveralternatives.org/archives/AltFuels_Brochure07e.pdf. (Last visited April 3, 2008.)
  • 154 White Energy, “Deep in the Heart of Texas,” http://www.white-energy.com/hereford.aspx; White Energy, “Our Hereford Plant’s Next Door Twin,” http://www.white-energy.com/plainview.aspx; Panda Ethanol, “Breaking Ground on 115 Million Gallon Ethanol Plant in Hereford,” http://www.pandaethanol.com/facilities/hereford/index.html; and Levelland Ethanol, “Texas Agriculture for a Cleaner Future,” http://www.levellandethanol.com/about.htm. (Last visited January 18, 2008.)
  • 155 U.S. Department of Agriculture, “Farm and Ranch Irrigation Survey: 2003” (Washington, D.C., November 2004), p. 90, http://www.nass.usda.gov/census/census02/fris/fris03.pdf. (Last visited March 31, 2008).
  • 156 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources, pp. 61-62.
  • 157 Joseph Fargione, Jason Hill, David Tilman, Stephen Polasky and Peter Hawthorne, “Land Clearing and the Biofuel Carbon Debt ,” Science (February 29, 2008) pp. 1235-1238; and Timothy Searchinger, Ralph Heimlich, R. A. Houghton, Fengxia Dong, Amani Elobeid, Jacinto Fabiosa, Simla Tokgoz, Dermot Hayes and Tun-Hsiang Yu, “Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change,” Science (February 29, 2008) pp. 1238-1240.
  • 158 U.S. Department of Energy, Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, p. 14.
  • 159 U.S. Department of Energy, Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, p. 3.
  • 160 U.S. Department of Energy, Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, p. 3.
  • 161 Comptroller calculation.
  • 162 U.S. Department of Agriculture: Economic Research Service, Oil Crops Outlook, by Mark Ash and Eric Dohlman (Washington, D.C., April 10, 2008), p.16, http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/MannUsda/viewDocumentInfo.do?documentID=1288 (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 163 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Interagency Agricultural Projections Committee, USDA Agricultural Projections to 2016, Washington, D.C. (February 2007), p.22, http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/oce071/oce20071fm.pdf (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 164 U.S. Department of Agriculture: Economic Research Service, Oil Crops Outlook.
  • 165 National Biodiesel Board, “Biodiesel Production Plants Under Construction or Expansion,” http://www.biodiesel.org/pdf_files/fuelfactsheets/Producers%20Map%20-%20Construction.pdf; and National Biodiesel Board, “Commercial Biodiesel Production Plants,” http://www.biodiesel.org/pdf_files/fuelfactsheets/Producers%20Map%20-%20existing.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 166 E-mail correspondence with Kelly Holligan; and e-mail correspondence with Jon Edwards.
  • 167 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agriculture Statistics Service, “Texas November Crop Production Forecast,” Washington, D.C., November 9, 2007, (Press release), http://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/Texas/Publications/Current_News_Release/2007_Rls/pr16307.pdf. (Last visited March 6, 2008.)
  • 168 Texas Comptroller calculation: (Btu content of biodiesel * Texas production); And interview with Allen Regehr, financial analyst, Young Farmer Loan Program and Biofuels Incentive Program, Texas Department of Agriculture, February 25, 2008. (Note: Data were for state fiscal 2007).
  • 169 Interview with Jenny Ligums, vice-president of external affairs, Biodiesel Coalition of Texas, December 11, 2007.
  • 170 U.S. Department of Energy, “Alternative Fuel Station Locator Results.”
  • 171 The Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers, “Alternative Fuel Country.”
  • 172 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Biodiesel and Air Quality, by Bob McCormick (Golden, Colorado, October 11, 2006), p. 3, http://biodieselcoalitionoftexas.org/documents/NRELSenateTestimony.pdf. (Las visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 173 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Effects of Biodiesel Blends on Vehicle Emissions, by R.L. McCormick, A. Williams, J. Ireland, M. Brimhall and R.R. Hayes (Golden, Colorado, October 2006), p. iii, http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy07osti/40554.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 174 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources, p. 62.
  • 175 Joseph Fargione, Jason Hill, David Tilman, Stephen Polasky and Peter Hawthorne, “Land Clearing and the Biofuel Carbon Debt”; and Timothy Searchinger, Ralph Heimlich, R. A. Houghton, Fengxia Dong, Amani Elobeid, Jacinto Fabiosa, Simla Tokgoz, Dermot Hayes and Tun-Hsiang Yu, “Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change.”
  • 176 U.S. Department of Energy, Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, p. 14.
  • 177 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Biodiesel Performance, Costs, and Use,” by Anthony Radich, www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/analysispaper/biodiesel/. (Last visited January 30, 2008.)
  • 178 Texas Forest Service, Biomass from Logging Residue and Mill Residue in East Texas, 2005, by Weihuan Xu and Burl Carraway (College Station, Texas, May 2007), p. 3, http://txforestservice.tamu.edu/uploadedFiles/Sustainable/econdev/TXloggingmillresidue06_2005.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 179 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table F13b: Wood and Waste Price and Expenditure Estimates by Sector, 2005,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_fuel/html/fuel_pr_ww_en.html. (Last visited January 30, 2008.)
  • 180 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table F13a: Wood, Waste, and Ethanol Consumption Estimates by Sector, 2005,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_fuel/html/fuel_use_ww_en.html. (last visited April 29, 2008); and U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table F13b: Wood and Waste Price and Expenditure Estimates by Sector, 2005.” (Last visited April 24, 2008.)
  • 181 Comptroller calculation.
  • 182 U.S. Department of Energy, Biomass Energy–Focus on Wood Waste (Washington, D.C., July 2004), p. 4, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/bamf_woodwaste.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 183 E-mail correspondence with Kelly Holligan; and e-mail correspondence with Jon Edwards.
  • 184 Presentation by Mark Kapner, senior strategy engineer, Austin Energy, Austin, Texas, April 3, 2007; and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, The Value of the Benefits of U.S. Biomass Power, by G. Morris, Green Power Institute (Golden, Colorado, November 1999), p. 12, http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy00osti/27541.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 185 Texas Forest Service, Biomass from Logging Residue and Mill Residue in East Texas, 2005, p. 3.
  • 186 Calculation based on information from Texas Forest Service, Biomass from Logging Residue and Mill Residue in East Texas, 2005; U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Procedures for Estimating Biomass Consumption Levels,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/renewable.energy.annual/backgrnd/appc.htm; and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, “Energy Units,” http://bioenergy.ornl.gov/papers/misc/energy_conv.html. (Last visited January 24, 2008.)
  • 187 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review 2006 (Washington, D.C., June 2007), p. 279, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/aer.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 188 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 189 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources, p. 65.
  • 190 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources, p. 65.
  • 191 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 192 U.S. Department of Energy, Biomass Energy–Focus on Wood Waste, p. 4.
  • 193 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Methane Recovery From Animal Manures: The Current Opportunity Casebook, by P. Lusk, Research Development Associates (Washington, D.C., September 1998), Abstract, http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy99osti/25145.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 194 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table F13b: Wood and Waste Price and Expenditure Estimates by Sector, 2005.”
  • 195 Comptroller calculation.
  • 196 Interview with Mark Hall, senior vice president, Environmental Power Corporation, and Mike Newman, director of plant operations, Microgy, Inc., August 31, 2007.
  • 197 E-mail correspondence with Kelly Holligan; and e-mail correspondence with Jon Edwards.
  • 198 Texas State Energy Conservation Office, “Combined Heat and Power Potential using Agricultural Wastes”, by the Houston Advanced Research Center (Austin, Texas, January 2008), pp. ix-x, http://www.seco.cpa.state.tx.us/zzz_re/re_biomass_chp-report2008.pdf. (Last visited March 20, 2008.)
  • 199 Lower Colorado River Authority, “LCRA to Purchase Renewable Biogas for its Natural Gas-Fueled Plants,” http://www.lcra.org/newsstory/2006/biogas.html. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 200 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 201 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 202 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 203 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources, p. 65.
  • 204 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources, p. 65.
  • 205 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 206 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 207 Texas A&M University System, Texas Cooperative Extension, Manure to Energy: Understanding Processes, Principles and Jargon, by Saquib Mukhtar and Sergio Capareda (College Station, Texas, November 2006), p. 2, http://tammi.tamu.edu/ManurtoEnrgyE428.pdf. (Last visited January 24, 2008.)
  • 208 Rachel Goldstein, “Trash to Treasure: Landfills as an Energy Resource,” District Energy Magazine (Third Quarter 2006), pp. 6-10, http://www.epa.gov/landfill/docs/3q06landfill.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 209 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Energy Projects and Candidate Landfills,” http://epa.gov/lmop/proj/index.htm. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 210 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table F13b: Wood and Waste Price and Expenditure Estimates by Sector, 2005.”
  • 211 Comptroller calculation.
  • 212 E-mail correspondence with Kelly Holligan; and e-mail correspondence with Jon Edwards.
  • 213 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Energy Projects and Candidate Landfills”; and Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Municipal Solid Waste in Texas: A Year in Review, FY 2006 Data Summary and Analysis, (Austin, Texas, November 2007), p. 4. http://www.tceq.state.tx.us/assets/public/comm_exec/pubs/as/187_07.pdf (Last visited April 20, 2008).
  • 214 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Energy Projects and Candidate Landfills.”
  • 215 Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Developing Landfill Gas Resources in Texas: A Status Report (Austin, Texas, 2002), p. 9, http://www.tceq.state.tx.us/assets/public/comm_exec/pubs/sfr/075_02.pdf. (Last visited January 25, 2008.)
  • 216 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Energy Projects and Candidate Landfills.”
  • 217 Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Municipal Solid Waste in Texas: A Year in Review, FY 2006 Data Summary and Analysis, p. 7.
  • 218 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “LMOP Database,” http://www.epa.gov/landfill/proj/xls/opprjseleclmopdata.xls. (Last visited January 24, 2008.)
  • 219 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 220 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 221 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Energy Calculator–Common Units and Conversions.”
  • 222 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Solid Waste Combustion/Incineration,” http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/landfill/sw_combst.htm. (Last visited January 24, 2008.)
  • 223 Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Municipal Solid Waste in Texas: A Year in Review, FY 2006 Data Summary and Analysis, pp. 8 and 28.
  • 224 Sarah Kleiner, “Turning Trash to Cash,” Abilene Reporter News (May 25, 2006), http://recenter.tamu.edu/mnews/mnsearch.asp?AID=1&TID=&STX=dyess. (Last visited January 22, 2008.)
  • 225 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Saving Energy: Waste-to-Energy,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/saving/recycling/solidwaste/wastetoenergy.html. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 226 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Research, Combustion Emissions from Hazardous Waste Incinerators, Boilers and Industrial Furnaces, and Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators–Results from Five STAR Grants and Research Needs (Washington, D.C., December 2006), pp. 1-4 and 1-5.
  • 227 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Table F13b: Wood and Waste Price and Expenditure Estimates by Sector, 2005.”
  • 228 Comptroller calculation.
  • 229 E-mail correspondence with Kelly Holligan; and e-mail correspondence with Jon Edwards.
  • 230 Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Burn or Bury? A Social Cost Comparison of Final Waste Disposal Methods, by Elbert Dijkgraaf and Herman R.J. Vollebergh (Milan, Italy, April 2003), p. 2, http://media.seor.nl/publications/burn-or-bury-social-cost-comparison-final-was-2003.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 231 Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Biennial Report to the 80th Legislature, FY 2005–FY 2006, pp. 32-33.
  • 232 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 233 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 234 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 235 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 236 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources, p. 65.
  • 237 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources, p. 65.
  • 238 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 239 Austin Community College, “Water and Wires: Flood Control and Electrification in the Lower Colorado River Valley,” by L. Patrick Hughes, Austin, Texas, 1999, http://www2.austin.cc.tx.us/lpatrick/his1693/lcra.html. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 240 Texas Water Development Board, Water for Texas (Austin, Texas, January 2007), Vol. II, Chapter 2, http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/publications/reports/State_Water_Plan/2007/2007StateWaterPlan/Chapter02_regC.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 241 Comptroller calculation.
  • 242 E-mail correspondence with Kelly Holligan.
  • 243 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “State Historical Tables for 2006,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/generation_state.xls. (Last visited January 25, 2008.)
  • 244 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Existing Nameplate and Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source, Producer Type and State, 1990-2006,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/existing_capacity_state.xls. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 245 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 246 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 247 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources, p. 68.
  • 248 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 249 Comptroller calculation.
  • 250 E-mail correspondence with Kelly Holligan.
  • 251 Interview with Maria Richards, Geothermal Lab coordinator, Southern Methodist University, Austin, Texas, March 27, 2007.
  • 252 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 253 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources, p. 65.
  • 254 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources, p. 65.
  • 255 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How Does Electricity Affect the Environment?”
  • 256 Interview with Brian Weeks, associate director, Advanced Energy Systems, Gas Technology Institute, February 25, 2008.
  • 257 U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Department of Transportation, Hydrogen Posture Plan: An Integrated Research, Development and Demonstration Plan (Washington, D.C., December 2006), p. 12, www.science.doe.gov/bes/Hydrogen_Posture_Plan_DEC06.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 258 U.S. Department of Energy, “U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program,” http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/doe_h2_program.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 259 E-mail from Brian Weeks.
  • 260 Texas Department of Transportation, TxDOT Strategic Plan for Hydrogen Vehicles and Fueling Stations, Final Report (Austin, Texas, August 2006), p. 2, http://www.sfcc.tv/TxDOTpercent20Strategicpercent20Planpercent20Reportpercent20FINAL.pdf. (Last visited January 25, 2008.)
  • 261 General Motors Corporation, “Chevrolet to Launch World’s Largest Fuel Cell Vehicle Fleet,” http://www.gm.com/explore/technology/news/2006/fc_fleet_launch_091806.jsp. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 262 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources (Washington, D.C., December 2006), p. 54, http://www.sandia.gov/energy-water/docs/121-RptToCongress-EWwEIAcomments-FINAL.pdf. (Last visited March 21, 2008).
  • 263 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Demands on Water Resources (Washington, D.C., December 2006), p. 54, http://www.sandia.gov/energy-water/docs/121-RptToCongress-EWwEIAcomments-FINAL.pdf. (Last visited March 21, 2008), p. 61.
  • 264 Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Transportation Energy Data Book Edition 26 (Knoxville, Tennessee, 2007), p. B-3, http://cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb26/Edition26_Full_Doc.pdf. (Last visited January 25, 2008.)
  • 265 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Energy Consumption by Sector: Table 2.1a, Energy Consumption by Sector, 1949-2006,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/consump.html, (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 266 U.S. Energy Information Administration , “Table 7: Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Selected Year, 1960-2005, Texas,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_use/total/pdf/use_tx.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 267 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Energy Consumption by Sector: Table 2.1a, Energy Consumption by Sector, 1949-2006.”
  • 268 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Annual Energy Outlook 2007 with Projections to 2030, Overview,” p. 6, http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/archive/aeo07/index.html. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 269 U.S. Department of Energy, Transportation Energy Data Book, by Stacy C. Davis and Susan W. Diegel (Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 2007), Chapter Three, Figure 3-1, http://cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb26/Edition26_Full_Doc.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 270 U.S. Department of Energy, Transportation Energy Data Book, Chapter Three, Table 3-3.
  • 271 Texas Department of Transportation, “Fast Facts and Information 2007,” ftp://ftp.dot.state.tx.us/pub/txdot-info/vtr/vtr_fast_facts_2007.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 272 U.S. Department of Energy, Transportation Energy Data Book, Chapter Five, Table 5-4; and Chapter Nine, Tables 9-3, 9-5 and 9-6.
  • 273 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Transportation Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2005,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_sum/plain_html/sum_Btu_tra.html. (Last visited March 13, 2008.)
  • 274 U.S. Department of Energy, Transportation Energy Data Book, Chapter Two, Table 2-6,
  • 275 H. Res. 6, 110th Cong. (2007) (enacted)
  • 276 The Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers, “Alternative Fuel Autos Are Everywhere,” http://www.discoveralternatives.org/Resources_and_Tools_AFAs_Everywhere.php. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 277 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “State Energy Profiles: Texas Quick Facts.”
  • 278 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Electricity Basics 101.”
  • 279 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Form EIA-860 Database: Annual Electric Generator Report,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/eia860.html. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 280 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Existing Electric Generating Units in the United States, 2006,” available in Excel format at http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/capacity/capacity.html. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 281 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Texas Electricity Profile, 2006,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/st_profiles/texas.html. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 282 Electric Reliability Council of Texas, ERCOT 2006 Annual Report (Austin, Texas, May 2007), p. 9, http://www.ercot.com/news/presentations/2007/2006_Annual_Report.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 283 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, “Appraised Value Limitation and Tax Credit,” http://www.window.state.tx.us/taxinfo/proptax/hb1200/index.html. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 284 Texas H.B. 2994, 80th Leg., Reg. Sess. (2007), requires the Comptroller to report on the progress of all Chapter 313 agreements, http://www.legis.state.tx.us/tlodocs/80R/billtext/pdf/HB02994F.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008); Texas H.B. 3430, 80th Leg., Reg. Sess. (2007), requires the Comptroller to report on the progress of all Chapter 313 agreements, http://www.legis.state.tx.us/tlodocs/80R/billtext/pdf/HB03430F.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008); and Texas H.B. 3693, 80th Leg., Reg. Sess. (2007), requires the Comptroller to report on the progress of certain Chapter 313 projects. http://www.legis.state.tx.us/tlodocs/80R/billtext/pdf/HB03693F.pdf. (Last visited April 29, 2008.)
  • 285 Technology Review, ”China’s Coal Future,” http://www.technologyreview.com/Energy/18069/?a=f (Last visited April 4, 2008.)
  • 286 Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, U.S. H.R. 6, 110th Congress (2007.); and Paul C. Westcott, “U.S. Ethanol Expansion Driving Changes Throughout the Agricultural Sector.” U.S. Department of Agriculture, Amber Waves (September 2007), p. 5, http://www.ers.usda.gov/AmberWaves/September07/Features/Ethanol.htm. (Last visited March 25, 2008.)
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