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Endnotes

[1] Texas S. B. 1375, 76th Leg. Reg. Sess. (1999).

[2] David E. Lorey, ed. United States-Mexico Border Statistics since 1990 (University of California, at Los Angeles, UCLA Latin American Center Publications, 1993), pp. 7-13 and pp. 25-38; and INEGI, “XII Censo General de Poblacion y Vivienda, 2000,” December 2, 2000 (http://www.inegi.gob.mx/difusion/espanol/bvinegi/cpyv/indice.html). (Internet document.)

[3] Texas State Data Center at Texas A&M University.

[4] CIEMEX-WEFA, Maquiladora Industry Outlook (Eddystone, Pennsylvania, May 2000), pp. 3.1-.3.

[5] CIEMEX-WEFA, Maquiladora Industry Outlook (Eddystone, Pennsylvania, May 2000), p. 5.2.

[6] “Maquila Scorecard”, Twin Plant News (August 2000), pp. 54-55.

[7] CIEMEX-WEFA, Maquiladora Industry Outlook (Eddystone, Pennsylvania, May 2000), p. 5.9.

[8] CIEMEX-WEFA, Maquiladora Industry Outlook (Eddystone, Pennsylvania, May 2000), p. 3.8.

[9] CIEMEX-WEFA, Maquiladora Monthly Monitor (Eddystone, Pennsylvania, August 2000), p. 8.

[10] U.S. Department of Transportation, “Transborder Surface Freight Data” (http://www.bts.gov/ntda/tbscd/reports/maps.html). (Internet document.)

[11] Texas Center for Enterprise and Economic Development, Texas A&M International University, “Truck Crossings into Texas from Mexico, 1990-99,” September 19, 2000 (http://www.tamiu.edu/coba/bti/bridge/trucks/tksthyr.htm). (Internet document.)

[12] Texas S.B. 1375, 76th Leg., Reg. Sess. (1999).

[13] Texas Department of Transportation, Texas-Mexico International Bridges and Border Crossings (Austin, Texas, March 1999), pp. i-iv.

[14] United General Accounting Office, U.S.-Mexico Border: Better Planning, Coordination Needed to Handle Growing Commercial Traffic (Washington, D.C., March 3, 2000), p. 41.

[15] Texas Department of Transportation, Texas-Mexico International Bridges and Border Crossings (Austin, Texas, March 1999), p. A-12.

[16] Texas Department of Transportation, Texas-Mexico International Bridges and Border Crossings (Austin, Texas, March 1999), p. A-13.

[17] Texas Department of Transportation, Texas-Mexico International Bridges and Border Crossings (Austin, Texas, March 1999), pp. 1-69.

[18] Interviews with Juan Villareal, Sonny Muñiz, Herb Murillio, Oscar Gonzalez, and Rubén Ochoa, taxpayer compliance supervisors, Texas Alcoholic Beverage Commission, March 1, 2000; April 10, 2000; and May 9, 2000.

[19] United States Customs Service, Importing into the United States: A Guide for Commercial Importers (Washington, D.C., November 1998), p. 1.

[20] United States Customs Service, People, Processes, Partnerships: A Report on the Customs Service for the 21st Century (Washington, D.C., September 1994), p. 21.

[21] Immigration and Naturalization Service, “Mission, Strategies, and Performance,” December 9, 2000 (http://www.ins.usdoj.gov/graphics/aboutins/insmission/index.htm). (Internet document.)

[22] Interview with Ramón Juárez, area port director, Immigration and Naturalization Service, February 28, 2000, Laredo, Texas.

[23] Immigration and Naturalization Service, “U.S. Border Patrol,” November 22, 2000 (http://www.ins.usdoj.gov/graphics/lawenfor/bpatrol/overview.htm#mission). (Internet document.)

[24] Immigration and Naturalization Service, Office of Public Affairs, “Fact Sheet, FY 1999 Resource Enhancements,” Washington, D.C., February 2, 1999. (Fact Sheet).

[25] Office of the Inspector General, Motor Carrier Safety Program for Commercial Trucks at U.S. Border, (Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Transportation, December 28, 1998), pp. 1-2.

[26] Adjutant General’s Department, “Texas National Guard’s Counterdrug Program,” December14, Austin, Texas 2000, pp. 7-12. (Briefing document.)

[27] Texas Department of Transportation, Texas-Mexico International Bridges and Border Crossings (Austin, Texas, March 1999), pp. 1-69.

[28] U.S. Department of Agriculture, “USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,” November 22, 2000 (http://www.aphis.usda.gov/oa/facilagx.html). (Internet document.)

[29] U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “FDA in the International Arena,” November 22, 2000 (http://www.fda.gov/oia/fdaintl.htm). (Internet document.)

[30] Texas Department of Transportation, Texas-Mexico International Bridges and Border Crossings (Austin, Texas, March 1999), pp. A-18 - A-20.

[31] Texas Department of Transportation, Texas-Mexico International Bridges and Border Crossings: Existing and Proposed (Austin, Texas March 1999), pp. A-12 - A-16.

[32] Texas Department of Transportation, International Activities Report, 1999 (Austin, Texas, 1999), pp. 22-34.

[33] V.T.C.A., Transportation Code §644.101(a).

[34] Texas S.B. 370, 76th Leg., Reg. Sess. (1999)

[35] Interviews with Sergeant Mario Salinas, Julian Sanchez, and José Rodriguez, troopers, License and Weight Division, Texas Department of Public Safety, February 29, 2000, Laredo, Texas; April 13, 2000, Harlingen, Texas; and May 9, 2000, El Paso, Texas.

[36] Environmental Protection Agency, “Mexico to U.S. Waste Shipment Tracking,” November 24, 2000 (http://www.epa.gov/earth1r6/6en/h/haztraks/mex-us.htm). (Internet document.)

[37] Texas Department of Public Safety, “Driver and Vehicle Requirements for Commercial Transportation in Texas,” Austin, Texas, p. 15. (Brochure.)

[38] American Chamber of Commerce of Mexico, A.C., “Complying with Standards when Selling to Mexico,” November 29, 2000 (http://www.secofi.gob.mx/normas/ingles/american.html). (Internet document.)

[39] Texas Department of Transportation, Texas-Mexico International Bridges and Border Crossings (Austin, Texas, March 1999), pp. 8, 13, and 29.

[40] TRAFICO Incorporated, “Presentation of Entry,” December 11, 2000 (http://www.trafico-inc.com/page96.html). (Internet document.)

[41] Texas Department of Transportation, Vehicle Titles and Registration Division, Tax Assessors letter 101-97 (Austin, Texas, August 29, 1997), p. 4.

[42] On January 1, 2000, all geographic access limits were to be lifted and U.S., Canadian, and Mexican trucking companies could provide international cross-border trucking services to or from any state, or province, in Mexico, the United States, and Canada.

[43] Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Transportation, Mexico-Domiciled Motor Carriers, Audit Report to the Office of the Secretary of Transportation (Washington, D.C., November 4, 1999), p. 2.

[44] Interview with Maria Sotelo, president, Rio Grande Valley Customs Brokers Association, Inc., McAllen, Texas, April 12, 2000 and November 29, 2000.

[45] Interview with Maria Sotelo, president, Rio Grande Valley Customs Brokers Association, Inc., McAllen, Texas, April 12, 2000.

[46] City of Laredo Bridge System, “Commercial Truck Traffic Distribution, 1995-1999.” Laredo, Texas, February 25, 2000. (Spreadsheet.)

[47] Office of the Inspector General, Mexico-Domiciled Motor Carriers, Audit Report to the Secretary of Transportation (Washington, D.C., November 4, 1999), p. ii.

[48] National Law Center for Inter-American Trade, Transportation Law and Practice in North America (Tucson, Arizona, 1996), pp. 21.

[49] “Nafta Offers Mexico Freedom of the Road,” Financial Times (November 28, 2000), p. 17.

[50] “Mexican Trucks Win NAFTA Ruling,” Dallas Morning News (December 1, 2000), p. 2D.

[51] U.S. Customs Services, Customs Systems and Infrastructure Overview, October 1, 1999. pp. 2-4.

[52] Department of the Treasury, U.S. Customs Service, and U.S. Department of Agriculture, “Pre-file and Paperless Pre-file Entries,” December 17, 1997, Hidalgo/Pharr, Texas (Joint Trade Bulletin), p. 1 and Attachment B.

[53] United States General Accounting Office, U.S.-Mexico Border. Better Planning, Coordination Needed to Handle growing Commercial Traffic (Washington, D.C., March 2000), pp. 14-16.

[54] George Ramon, superintendent, McAllen-Hidalgo International Bridge, Hidalgo, Texas, December 18, 2000. (Facsimile.)

[55] George Ramon, superintendent, McAllen-Hidalgo International Bridge, Hidalgo, Texas, December 18, 2000. (Facsimile.)

[56] Buses do not come into the commercial secondary inspection area, but sometimes DPS officers are asked to do a level 2 inspection on a bus. These inspections are conducted on the international bridge in the non-commercial secondary inspection area.

[57] Interview with Sergeant Mario Salinas, trooper, Licensing and Weight Division, Texas Department of Public Safety, Laredo, Texas, February 29, 2000.

[58] Interview with Sergeant José C. Rodriguez, trooper, Licensing and Weight Division, Texas Department of Public Safety, El Paso, Texas, May 9, 2000.

[59] Interview with Major Coy Clanton, commander, Licensing and Weight Division, Texas Department of Public Safety, Laredo, Texas, December 7, 2000.

[60] Memorandum from Lieutenant Mauricio Cantú, commander, Laredo Division, License and Weight, Texas Department of Public Safety to Captain Coy Clanton, Corpus Christi Division, January 31, 2000.

[61] Telephone interview with Laura Uribarrí, director of Public Policy, El Paso Greater Chamber of Commerce, El Paso, Texas, December 18, 2000.

[62] Interview with George Ramon, bridge superintendent, City of McAllen International Toll Bridge, Hidalgo, Texas, April 10, 2000.

[63] National Governor’s Association, A Governor’s Guide to Intelligent Transportation Systems/Commercial Vehicle Operations, by Jay Kayne and Thorn Rubel (Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 2.

[64] Facsimile from Maria Sotelo, Rio Grande Valley Customs Brokers Association, Inc., Austin, Texas, November 11, 2000.

[65] Interview with Pete Sepulveda, director, Cameron County Bridge System, Brownsville, Texas, April 10, 2000 and Interview with George Ramon, bridge superintendent, City of McAllen International Toll Bridge, Hidalgo, Texas, April 4, 2000.

[66] TRAFICO Incorporated, “Presentation of Entry,” December 11, 2000 (http://www.trafico-inc.com/page96.html). (Internet document.)

[67] TRAFICO Incorporated, “Border Crossing,” December 11, 2000 (http://www.trafico-inc.com/page96.html). (Internet document.)

[68] TRAFICO Incorporated, “Border Crossing,” December 11, 2000 (http://www.trafico-inc.com/page96.html). (Internet document.)

[69] United States Customs Service, Importing into the United States: A Guide for Commercial Importers (Washington, D.C., November 1998), p. 1.

[70] Interview with Pete Sepulveda, director, Cameron County Bridge System, Brownsville, Texas, April 10, 2000, and Interview with George Ramon, bridge superintendent, City of McAllen International Toll Bridge, Hidalgo, Texas, April 4, 2000.

[71] Interview with George Ramon, bridge superintendent, City of McAllen International Toll Bridge, Hidalgo, Texas, April 10, 2000.

[72] Border Trade Alliance, “Texas Summit,” speech by Mike Allen, director, McAllen Economic Development Corporation and Sam Vale, president, Rio Grande City International Bridge, McAllen, Texas, November 8, 2000.

[73] Border Trade Alliance, “Texas Summit,” speech by Mike Allen, director, McAllen Economic Development Corporation, and by Betty Flores, mayor, City of Laredo, Texas, McAllen, Texas, November 8, 2000.

[74] Border Trade Alliance, “Texas Summit,” speech by John Lenihan, assistant director, Field Operations, U.S. Customs, McAllen, Texas, November 8, 2000.

[75] Texas Transportation Institute and the University of Texas Center for Transportation Research, presentation by William Stockton and Rob Harrison to the Texas Transportation Commission, Texas Department of Public Safety, Austin, Texas, December 12, 2000.

[76] “Mexican Trucks Win NAFTA Ruling,” Dallas Morning News (December 1, 2000), p. 2D.

[77] Interviews with Juan Villareal, Sonny Muñiz, Herb Murillio, Oscar Gonzalez, and Rubén Ochoa, taxpayer compliance supervisors, Texas Alcoholic Beverage Commission, March 1, 2000; April 10, 2000; and May 9, 2000.

[78] V.T.C.A., Transportation Code, §648.101

[79] Texas Department of Transportation, “Checklist for Mexico-based Commercial Motor Vehicles,” January 13, 2000 (http://www.dot.state.tx.us/insdtdot/orgchart/mcd/permit/foreign.htm). (Internet document.)

[80] Texas S.B. 3, 74th Leg., Reg. Sess. (1995).

[81] Texas Department of Public Safety, “Driver and Vehicle Requirements for Commercial Transportation in Texas,” Austin, Texas, pp. 13-14. (Pamphlet.)

[82] Interview with Maria Sotelo, president, Rio Grande Valley Customs Brokers Association, Inc., McAllen, Texas, April 12, 2000.

[83] Border Trade Alliance, “Texas Summit,” speech by John Simpson, Deputy Assistant Secretary, U.S. Treasury, McAllen, Texas, November 8, 2000. He estimated 50 percent of trucks crossing at Laredo were empties.

[84] The dedicated commuter lane in El Paso is an example of a lane for pre-cleared vehicles.

[85] V.T.C.A., Transportation Code, §361.307(a).

[86] Texas Transportation Institute and the University of Texas Center for Transportation Research, presentation by William Stockton and Rob Harrison to the Texas Transportation Commission, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, Texas, December 12, 2000.

[87] Texas Department of Transportation, Pharr and Laredo Districts, presentation by TransAnalysis Engineers and Planners in Pharr, Texas, November 29, 2000, and Laredo, Texas, December 7, 2000.