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ENDNOTES

1 Gail Mummert, ed., Población y trabajo en contextos regionales (Zamora, Michoacan: El Colegio de Michoacan, 1990).

2 Susan Ferriss, "Lifeline from El Norte," Austin American-Statesman (February 15, 1998).

3 Conditions in Texas for Mexican laborers were once considered so severe that when the two countries created the wartime bracero program, permitting Mexicans to work temporarily in the U.S., Mexico would not allow them to work in the Lone Star State. Richard Craig, The Bracero Program: Interest Groups and Foreign Policy (Austin, University of Texas Press, 1971); Congressional Record, March 1, 1947.

4 Grolier's New Electronic Encyclopedia (1991), in California State University Monterey Bay Local History Site, "Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo" (http://www.monterey.edu/other-sites/history/treaty.html). (Internet document.)

5 William Langewiesche, Cutting For Sign (New York: Pantheon, 1993).

6 U.S. Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization Service, Statistical Yearbook of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1990 (Washington, D.C., 1991).

7 Langewiesche, Cutting for Sign.

8 Carlos Rico, "Migration and U.S.-Mexican Relations," in Christopher Mitchell, ed., Western Hemisphere Immigration and U.S. Foreign Policy (University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University, 1991).

9 Proyecto Chihuahua Siglo 21, Ciudad Juarez, 1997, as reported in "35,000 Annual Newcomers Strain City," El Paso Times (September 22, 1997).

10 John Crewdson, The Tarnished Door: The New Immigrants and the Transformation of America (New York: New York Times Books, 1983).

11 Rico, "Migration and U.S.-Mexican Relations," p. 256.

12 Joel Brinkley, "A Success at the Border Earned Only a Shrug," The New York Times (September 14, 1994).

13 Department of Agricultural Economics, University of California-Davis, "Enforcement and Databases," Migration News, October 1997. (Newsletter.)

14 U.S. Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization Service, "INS Commissioner Meissner Launches `Operation Rio Grande,'" August 25, 1997. (Press release.)

15 "Four States Share New Border Agents," Associated Press (March 11, 1998).

16 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General, Audit Division, "Memorandum Audit Report 95-25, Immigration and Naturalization Service, Operation Jobs Pilot Program in Texas" (http://www.usdoj.gov/oig/insopj12.htm). (Internet document.)

17 "Salvaging the INS," The New York Times (August 10, 1997); "Immigration Service: Should Federal Agency Be Reorganized?," Dallas Morning News (August 14, 1997). Both newspapers stopped short of endorsing the outright elimination of the INS.

18 "INS Chief Proposes Reorganization," Dallas Morning News (April 1, 1998).

19 Department of Agricultural Economics, University of California-Davis, "INS: Budget, Naturalization, Enforcement," Migration News, March 1998. (Newsletter.)

20 U.S. Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization Service, "Illegal Alien Resident Population," November, 25, 1997 (http://www.ins.usdoj.gov/stats/illegalalien/index.html). (Internet document.)

21 U.S. Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization Service, "State Population Estimates: Legal Permanent Residents and Aliens Eligible to Apply for Naturalization," November, 20, 1996 (http://www.ins.usdoj.gov/hqopp/lprest.html). (Internet document.)

22 U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Population Estimates Program, Population Division, March 1997 estimates.

23 Sylvia Moreno, "Poll Tracks Sentiment On Aliens," Dallas Morning News (February 19, 1995).

24 "Report Disputes What Texas Spends Jailing, Treating Illegal Immigrants," Del Rio News-Herald (September 18, 1994).

25 U.S. Department of Commerce, Economic Development Administration, Table 12.3, "Total Outlays for Grants to State and Local Governments by Function, Agency and Program: 1940-2002" (http://cher.eda.doc.gov/BudgetFY97/txt/hist/hist12.txt). (Internet document.)

26 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, Annual Financial Reports and Comprehensive Annual Financial Reports for the State of Texas, 1987 to 1996.

27 U.S. Department of Commerce, "Total Outlays for Grants to State and Local Governments by Function, Agency and Program: 1940-2002;" and Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, Annual Financial Reports and Comprehensive Annual Financial Reports.

28 Susan Krafft, "Hide-and-Seek With Illegal Aliens," American Demographics (July 1994), p. 10.

29 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, Annual Financial Reports and Comprehensive Annual Financial Reports.

30 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, "Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance-16.572: State Criminal Alien Assistance Program" (http://aspe.os.dhhs.gov/cfda/p16572.htm). (Internet document.)

31 Texas Legislative Budget Board, Fiscal Size Up: 1998-99 Biennium, Texas State Services (Austin, Texas, February 1998).

32 Michael Fix, Council of State Governments, "Conflicting Signals," Spectrum (Spring 1994), p. 50.