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ENDNOTES

1 "Nada detiene la violencia en Ciudad Juárez: ni reorganización policiaca ni marchas ni rezos..." Proceso (September 7, 1997).

2 Dane Schiller, "Citizens Group on Border Warns of Peril in Paying Visits to Juarez," San Antonio Express-News (November 18, 1997).

3 "Nada detiene la violencia en Ciudad Juárez," Proceso.

4 Jodi Bizar, "Bulletproof Clothes Are Juarez Trend," San Antonio Express-News (April 7, 1998).

5 U.S. Department of Justice, "Mexico and the Southwest Border Initiative," March 12, 1997 (http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/cngrtest/ct1970312.htm). (Internet document.)

6 U.S. Department of State, Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, The International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, 1996 (Washington, D.C., March 1997).

7 Five Mexican cartels have international stature and scope: Guadalajara, Sinaloa, Tijuana, Juarez, and the Gulf. Both cartels bordering Texas--the Ciudad Juarez and Gulf cartels--are in turmoil due to the deaths or arrest of their leaders. Coming Together? Mexico-United States Relations, Barry Bosworth, Susan M. Collins, and Nora Claudia Lustig, eds., (Washington, D.C., Brookings Institute Press, 1997), pp. 131-134.

8 Texas A&M International, "Border Trade Institute" (http://www.tamiu.edu/coba/bti). (Internet document.) Although there are 22 vehicular international bridges along the Texas-Mexico border, the 11 major ports are Brownsville, Del Rio, Eagle Pass, El Paso, Harlingen, Laredo, McAllen-Hidalgo, Presidio, Progreso, Rio Grande, and Roma.

9 U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, Briefing Book, 1995 (http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/briefing/3_11.htm). (Internet document.)

10 U.S. Department of Justice, Briefing Book, 1995. To qualify as a High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA), an area must be a center of illegal drug production, manufacturing, importation, or distribution. In Texas, Houston and the Texas-Mexico border region are classified as HIDTAs.

11 U.S. Department of the Treasury, "Operation Hard Line, Seizure Data," January 30, 1998 (http://www.customs.ustreas.gov/enforce/hardline/int4.htm). (Internet document.)

12 U.S. Government Accounting Office, Money Laundering: U.S. Efforts to Fight It are Threatened by Currency Smuggling (Washington, D.C., March 1994), p. 3.

13 U.S. Customs Service, "Customs Service Seizure Statistics for the Fiscal Year 1996," November 7, 1996. (Press release.)

14 Dane Schiller, "Narcodollars Flowing South Via Laredo," San Antonio Express-News (November 2, 1997).

15 Dane Schiller, "Border Agents Seizing Bundles of Cash," San Antonio Express-News (April 17, 1998).

16 "The Nature and Extent of U.S.-Mexican Anti-Narcotics Cooperation," speech in Austin, Texas, March 28, 1996 (http://www.state.gov/www/global/narcotics_law/becker-032896.html). (Internet document.)

17 U.S. Department of the Treasury, "Facts About Customs Drug Interdiction" (http://www.customs.ustreas.gov/enforce/hardline/intfact.htm). (Internet document.)

18 National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, America's Illegal Drug Profile, March 19, 1998 (http://www.health.org/ndcs98/ii.html). (Internet document.) A current user is defined as an individual who consumed an illegal drug in the month prior to being interviewed for the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

19 Thaddeus Herrick, "Armed On the Border," Houston Chronicle (November 2, 1997).

20 "The Drug Lords of Maverick County," The New York Times Magazine (July 27, 1997), pp. 30-33.

21 U.S. Border Patrol, Armed Encounters, 1993-1997 (October 31, 1997).

22 "Smugglers' Blues," Houston Chronicle (August 24, 1997).

23 Interview with Captain Enrique Espinoza, Texas Department of Public Safety, Narcotics Services, McAllen, Texas, October 8, 1997.

24 Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse, 1996 Survey of Substance Abuse on the Texas-Mexico Border and in Colonias (Austin, Texas, December 1997), pp. 1-9.

25 James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling, "Broken Windows," Atlantic Monthly (March 1982).

26 "Webb Stops Taking Fed Drug Cases," San Antonio Express-News (October 8, 1997), p. 1.

27 Webb County Commissioner Rick Reyes, as quoted in "Webb Delays U.S. Suit Decision," San Antonio Express-News (October 16, 1997).

28 U.S. Border Patrol, Number of Seizures, 1993-1997 (October 31, 1997). In 1997, the El Paso sector averaged three marijuana apprehensions daily for an annual total of about 65 tons.

29 "Drug Seizures Increase," Valley Morning Star (October 8, 1997).

30 "The Nature and Extent of U.S.-Mexican Anti-Narcotics Cooperation," speech in Austin, Texas, March 28, 1996 (http://www.state.gov/www/global/narcotics_law/becker-032896.html). (Internet document.)

31 U.S. Department of Treasury, "Facts About Customs Drug Interdiction" (http://www.customs.ustreas.gov/enforce/hardline/intfact.htm). (Internet document.)

32 U.S. Department of Treasury, Department of Customs, "U.S. Customs Unveils First Cargo Search X-Ray in Texas," November 14, 1997. (Press release.)

33 U.S. Department of Treasury, Department of Customs, "Carrier Initiative Programs," (http://www.customs.ustreas.gov/enforce/hardline/cipseal.htm). (Internet document.)