Skip to content
Quick Start for:

1 Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, The University of Texas at Austin, Challenges in the Binational Management of Water Resources in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, report by David J. Eaton and David Hurlbut (Austin, Texas, 1992), pp. 14 and 11. Under the 1906 Convention for the Equitable Division of the Waters of the Rio Grande for Irrigation Purposes, the U.S. promised to provide Juarez with 74 million cubic feet of water a year if U.S. crews could build the Elephante-Butte Dam upstream on the river in New Mexico.

2 Telephone interview, Clifford Regensberg, hydrologist, International Boundary and Water Commission, May 5, 1998.

3 Project del Rio, Water Quality in the Rio Grande Watershed: A Resource for Action Taking (Las Cruces, New Mexico, 1997), p. 10.

4 Dallas Morning News, 1998-99 Texas Almanac (College Station, Texas: Texas A&M Press Consortium, 1997), p. 65.

5 Telephone interview, Kenneth N. Rakestraw, chief, Water Accounting Division, International Boundary and Water Commission, Austin, Texas, May 6, 1998.

6 Texas Historical Commission, A Shared Experience: The History, Architecture and Historic Designations of the Lower Rio Grande Heritage Corridor (Austin, Texas, 1991), p. 12.

7 Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, "Projects and Partnerships in the Texas-Mexico Border," Austin, Texas, December 1997. (Flyer.)

8 Texas Agricultural Extension Service, Texas A&M University System, State and Extension District Annual Increment Summaries Estimated Value of Agricultural Production and Related Items (College Station, Texas, May 1997), p. 86.

9 Includes the populations of Starr, Hidalgo, and Cameron counties and the Mexican cities of Matamoros, Valle Hermoso, Rio Bravo, Reynosa, Gustavo Diaz Ordaz, Camargo, and Miguel Aleman.

10 Telephone interview with Julian Perales, manager, River Operations, Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, Austin, Texas, May 7, 1998.

11 "Protecting a Treasure Where the River Meets the Gulf," Austin American-Statesman (September 21, 1997).

12 Fort Worth Star Telegram, August 9, 1993.

13 Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, 1996 Regional Assessment of Water Quality in the Rio Grande Basin (Austin, Texas, October 1996), p. 28.

14 "NAFTA has failed to halt Rio Grande pollution problems," The Dallas Morning News (June 9, 1997).

15 University of Texas at El Paso, "El Paso del Norte," ( (Internet document.)

16 Texas A&M Agricultural News, "Salinity in Rio Grande May Limit Drinking, Irrigation Water," August 24, 1995 ( (Internet document.)

17 Office of the Governor, State of Texas, Governor's Border Working Group (Austin, Texas, January 1993), p. 3.

18 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, School Performance Review, United Independent School District, by MGT of America, Inc. (Austin, Texas, February 15, 1996), p. 399. (Consultant's report.)

19 Texas Water Development Board, "Time to Complete Facility Plan from Board Approval Date as of March 12, 1998," Austin, Texas, March 20, 1998. (Computer printout.)

20 Telephone interview with Ygnacio Madera, Jr., assistant director, International Affairs and Program Development, Texas Water Development Board, Austin, Texas, April 16, 1998.

21 El Paso Interreligious Sponsoring Organization, The El Paso County Environmental Assessment, by Cyrus Reed, Texas Center for Policy Studies (El Paso, Texas, 1997), pp. 27-28. (Consultant's report.)

22 Presentation by James W. Yarborough, physical scientist, Region 6, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Southwest Center for Environmental Research and Policy Conference, El Paso, Texas, September 11, 1997.

23 "U.S., Mexico Plants Big Bend Smog Factor, Study Suggests," Houston Chronicle (May 5, 1998), p. A-24.

24 The University of Texas at Austin, "William P. Hobby-Robert E. Eberly Telescope News Advisory," September 15, 1997 ( (Internet document.)

25 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S.-Mexico Border XXI Program, Framework Document (Washington, D.C., October 1996) p. A1.1.

26 The Agreement on Cooperation for the Protection and Improvement of the Environment is known as the La Paz Agreement, for La Paz, Baja California, where the agreement was signed in 1983.

27 The Commission for Environmental Cooperation operates with three groups: a council consisting of cabinet-level environmental officials from Canada, the U.S., and Mexico; the Secretariat, a Montreal-based staff of 30 professionals from all three countries; and the Joint Public Advisory Committee (JPAC), a 15-member committee evenly divided among the three countries. The committee advises the commission and works to increase public participation on relevant issues.

28 North American Development Bank, 1996 Annual Report (San Antonio, Texas, June 30, 1997), p. 9.

29 Telephone interview with Annie Alvarado, officer, Community and Government Affairs, North American Development Bank, San Antonio, Texas, June 10, 1998.

30 North American Development Bank, Annual Public Meeting Report, Current Status and Outlook (San Antonio, Texas, January 28, 1998), p. 13.

31 Joint Advisory Committee for the Improvement of Air Quality in the Paso del Norte Air Basin, Supplemental Environment Projects in the Paso del Norte Air Basin, by Ronald G. Ketter, Oscar Ibañez H., et. al. (El Paso, Texas, August 12, 1997), pp. A4.1, 14, iii, 11. (Consultant's report.)

32 The Border Governors' Conference, which began in 1981, brings together the governors of Arizona, California, New Mexico and Texas, and their peers in Baja California, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Sonora, and Tamaulipas.

33 Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, Texas-Nuevo León, Strategic Environmental Plan: A Framework for Cooperation (Austin, Texas, July 31, 1997), pp. A I and ii.

34 Rio Grande Alliance-Alianza del Río Bravo, "Basinwide Inventory Underway," Rio Grande Alliance Update (Summer 1997), pp. 1-2. (Newsletter.)

35 Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, "Projects and Partnerships in the Texas-Mexico Border," p. 1.

36 Telephone interview, Maria Araujo, coordinator, International Affairs, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Austin, Texas, May 6, 1998.

37 North American Institute, Managing Air Quality In The Paso del Norte Region, by Peter M. Emerson, Carlos F. Angulo, Christine L. Shaver, and Carlos A. Rincon (Santa Fe, New Mexico, October 1, 1996), p. 13.

38 Texas Water Development Board, Water for Texas (Austin, Texas, August 1997), pp. 3-2, 3-14, 3-8, 3-103 and 3-104.

39 El Paso Interreligious Sponsoring Organization, The El Paso County Environmental Assessment, p. 12.

40 One acre-foot of water is equivalent to 325,851 gallons of water, the amount needed to cover an acre with a foot of water.

41 Telephone interview, Ernest Rebuck, El Paso Public Service Board, October 10, 1997.

42 Memorandum from Mary Thompson, Corder/Thompson & Associates, to Policy Management Committee for the Integrated Water Resource Plan for Cameron, Hidalgo and Willacy Counties, April 17, 1998.

43 Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, Texas Border Region Environmental Infrastructure Needs Assessment (Austin, Texas 1997), p. 15. The study area includes 33 counties within the 100 kilometers defined in the La Paz Agreement in 1993.

44 U.S. Council of the Mexico-U.S. Business Committee, Analysis of Environmental Infrastructure Requirements and Financing Gaps on the U.S./Mexico Border, by Public Financial Management Inc., Grupo Serficor, Latham and Watkins, Mitchel Stanfield (Washington, D.C., August, 1993), p. 6. (Consultant's report.)