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ENDNOTES

1 Texas A&M University Real Estate Center, "Projecting Housing Construction Through the Remainder of the 1990s," Report by Jack Harris (College Station, Texas, 1997). (Unpublished report.)

2 Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs, 1995 State Low Income Housing Plan (Austin, Texas, January 1995), pp. 17-20. According to the State Plan, excessive cost burden, overcrowding, and physical deficiency (primarily defined as lack of complete plumbing and/or kitchen facilities) as measured in the 1990 Census were worse, and in some cases much worse, in Texas than in the nation as a whole. Overcrowding was especially a problem for poor Hispanic households in Texas.

3 COSERVE, University of Texas-Pan-American, A Survey of Selected Rio Grande Valley Colonias, and the Factors Impacting Hook-Up Services (Edinburg, Texas, July 1997), p. 1. The other 2 percent are located throughout the Southwest, but according to COSERVE, New Mexico is the only other state to recognize colonia problems officially.

4 Texas Water Development Board, Planning Division, Water and Wastewater Survey of Economically Distressed Areas (Austin, Texas, December 1996).

5 Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, Colonia Housing and Infrastructure: Current Population and Housing Characteristics, Future Growth, and Housing, Water and Wastewater Needs (Austin, TX, January 1996), p. 1. (Preliminary report.)

6 Border Low Income Housing Coalition, Border Housing and Community Development Partnership (Austin, Texas. June 1993). p. 5. The report describes the "intense desire for self-improvement" existing among poor border residents.

7 In 1996, El Paso issued about 2,300 single-family permits. Based on the State Data Center's high population projection, which assumes a continuation of 1990-94 migration rates, El Paso would need to issue 9,500 permits a year to keep up with population growth.

8 Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs, 1996 State of Texas Consolidated Plan (Austin, Texas, 1996), p. 229.

9 Other factors in housing affordability include monthly debts and expenses, the amount of space needed, physical constraints such as personal or family disabilities, and the amount of cash available for downpayments or deposits.

10 Telephone interviews with Andy Erban, legislative director, Texas Association of Builders, Austin, Texas, April 30, 1998; and Bobby Bowling IV, Tropicana Building Corporation, El Paso, Texas, April 30, 1998; and testimony of Bobby Bowling IV to Joint Hearing of Senate Interim Committee on Affordable Housing and Housing Urban Affairs Committee, El Paso, Texas, April 29, 1998.

11 Texas A&M University Real Estate Center, "Annual Home Sales in Texas, 1979-1996," (http://recenter.tamu.edu/data/hs/hstx.htm). (Internet document.); and U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research, "FY97 Income Limits and Fair Market Rents" (http://www.huduser.org/publications/publicassist/assisted/fmr97.html.) (Internet document.)

The average sale price of a Texas single-family home in 1997 ranged from $72,000 in San Angelo to $142,100 in Austin, with a state average of $117,700. The Fair Market Rent ranged from $345 in San Angelo to $503 in Austin for a one-bedroom apartment, and $419 in San Angelo to $670 in Austin for a two-bedroom unit. The average of all two-bedroom Fair Market Rents for metros outside South Texas was $490 a month. The average sale price in South Texas was $99,493. The average of all metro two-bedroom Fair Market Rents in South Texas was $494 a month.

Fair Market Rent is determined by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development to be the 40th percentile of rents for standard units in the local market. The average sale price of single family homes is calculated by the Texas A&M University Real Estate Center using data reported by each local Multiple Listing Service.

11 Sale price information for single-family homes was not available for Laredo.

12 The federal minimum wage is $5.15 per hour, and the state average wage for jobs covered by Unemployment Insurance in the second quarter of 1997 was $14.89 per hour. The "living wage" category is clustered around $10 per hour, which is about 150 percent of the federal poverty level for a family of four.

13 This assumes 30 percent of gross income for housing, $5,000 downpayment, equaling about 6 percent of sale price, 30-year fixed-rate mortgage at 7.25 percent interest, tax and interest total 1.50 percent of the home value.

14 Texas Workforce Commission, "Covered Employment and Wages, Second Quarter 1997," and Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts.

15 Texas Workforce Commission, Department of Labor Market Information, Occupations and Wages in Texas: First Year Findings of the Occupational Employment Statistics Survey (Austin, Texas, April 1998).

16 Texas H.B. 1, 75th Leg., Reg. Sess. (1997).

17 Tropicana Building Corporation, "Status Report," El Paso, Texas, April 1998. (Fact sheet.)

18 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, A Partnership for Independence (Austin, Texas, January 5, 1995), p. 9. Welfare is assumed to mean the cash assistance provided through the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families program. The U.S. Department of Commerce sets the poverty level annually.

19 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, "Fiscal Year 1998 Income Limits and Section 8 Fair Market Rents (FMRs)," (http://www.huduser.org/data/asthse/fmr/fmr98/brief98.wp). (Internet document.) State and local housing programs obtain their income data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, which makes annual income estimates for every U.S. county as well as adjusted estimates for each state.

20 Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs, 1996 Statewide Low Income Housing Plan and Annual Report (Austin, Texas, July 1996). As with the poverty level, there is a separate Area Median Family Income for each family size.

21 Eighty percent of the Area Median Family Income in McAllen and El Paso equals 160 percent of poverty. The Medicaid eligibility ceiling is 185 percent of poverty for infants and pregnant women.

22 Interviews with Curtis Davidson, Clark Wilson Homebuilders, Austin, Texas, November 20, 1997; Henry Flores, Flores, Elizondo and Associates, Austin, Texas, October 3, 1997; and telephone interviews with Terry Mazurick, Hartland Bank, Austin, Texas, November 19, 1997; Andy Erban, Texas Association of Builders, Austin, Texas, April 30, 1998; and Bobby Bowling IV, Tropicana Building Corporation, El Paso, Texas, April 30, 1998.

23 Based on 30-year fixed-rate loan at 7.25 percent interest with $5,000 downpayment.

24 Beazer Homes USA, Inc., "Beazer Homes Announces Closing of $100 Million Senior Notes," March 25, 1998. (Press release.)

25 "El Paso's poor to get housing boost," The Dallas Morning News (March 1, 1998); and telephone interviews with Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs staff, March-April 1998.

26 Interviews with legislative staff and Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs housing staff, November 1997 to March 1998.

27 Border Low Income Housing Coalition, Report to the Governor's Border Working Group (January 1993), p. 37; and U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Public and Indian Housing, Colonias Affordable Housing Phase II Report, by Price Waterhouse/Flores, Elizondo & Associates (Austin, Texas, April 30, 1997), p. 13. (Consultant's report.)

28 Telephone interview with Brownsville Community Development Corporation staff, April 23, 1998.

29 Interview with John Henneberger, Texas Low Income Housing Information Service, El Paso, Texas, April 29, 1998.