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ENDNOTES

1 Texas Workforce Commission, "Monthly and Annual Local Area Unemployment Statistics by Texas County" (Austin, Texas, February 1998), annual averages for 1997. This figure includes Bexar County; without Bexar County, the Border region 1997 unemployment rate was 10.7 percent.

2 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, "Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment: March 1998," April 29, 1998 (ftp://146.142.4.23/pub/news.release/History/metro.042998.news). (Internet document.) The cities cited here rank in the top 25 of the 328 cities in the BLS report. McAllen-Edinburg-Mission is in the top seven, Brownsville-Harlingen-San Benito is in the top 15, and Laredo and El Paso are in the top 25.

3 Texas Workforce Commission, "Monthly and Annual Local Area Unemployment Statistics by Texas County," annual averages for 1997.

4 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, "BLS Reports on the Amount of Formal and Informal Training Received by Employees, " December 19, 1996 (ftp://ftp.bls.gov/pub/news.release/History/sept.042897.news). (Internet document.)

5 Steven Hipple, "Worker displacement in an expanding economy," Monthly Labor Review (December 1997), pp. 26, 37.

6 "BLS Reports on the Amount of Formal and Informal Training Received by Employees."

7 Telephone survey conducted by Meredith White, Intern, Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, during the week of April 27-May 1, 1998.

8 U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, "Comparison of Key Features of Workforce Development Proposals" (http://www.wdsc.org/transition/sideby.htm). (Internet document.)

9 These figures are calculated using Texas Workforce Commission (TWC) expenditures by county for the Border compared to total TWC expenditures in 1997 according to the 1997 Annual Cash Report. The figures are then adjusted by subtracting all but the $20.4 million public assistance amount for Travis County, according to the Texas 1997 State Expenditures by County, page II-345, to keep the headquarters operations from skewing the totals and comparisons.

10 National School-to-Work Learning Center, "Texas State School-to-Work Initiative," (http://www.stw.ed.gov/states/ecs/TX.htm). (Internet document.)

11 James Cooper, Program Specialist, School-to-Careers, Texas Workforce Commission, "Grant Applicant Contacts," Austin, Texas, June 11, 1998. (Facsimile.)

12 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (http://nces.ed.gov/nadlits/overview.html#basic). (Internet document.)

13 Stephen Reder, Synthetic Estimates of Literacy Proficiency for Small Census Areas, October 1997 (http://www.casas.org/lit/litcode/Detail.CFM?census_AREAID=44). (Internet document.) The data for the Border was taken from this database, which did not include counties with populations under 10,000, and which is based on 1990 Census data and information from the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey.

14 Texas H.B. 1, General Appropriations Act, 75th Leg., Reg. Sess. (1997), p. III-5.

15 Texas Education Agency, Adult Literacy in Texas (Austin, Texas, May 1994).

16 Economic Development Committee, Texas House of Representatives, An Analysis of the Regional Distribution of Money Under the Smart Jobs Program, Fiscal Years 1994-1997 (Austin, Texas, January 1998).

17 Economic Development Committee, Texas House of Representatives, "The Smart Jobs Spending Problem," Austin, Texas, January 1998. (Briefing document).

18 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, Texas Workforce Commission Project--Final Report (Austin, Texas, December 1995), p. 135.

19 Skills Development Fund Contract Report from Richard Hall, director, Business Services, Texas Workforce Commission, to Sidney Hacker, Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, September 3, 1997. (Facsimile.)

20 Based on an analysis of the data presented in the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board's 1996 Higher Education Statistics.

21 Interview with Glenda Barron, Assistant Commissioner, Community and Technical College Division, Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Austin, Texas, June 8, 1998.

22 Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board; Legislative Budget Board.

23 V.T.C.A., Education Code, SS135.01.

24 The specific fields for which TSTC is qualified to provide training but for which El Paso Community College District has no program were determined by comparing the detailed list of occupations from the El Paso Workforce Development Foundation's The El Paso Labor Market: A Training Gap Analysis (El Paso, December 1997), a list of El Paso Community College District vocational programs (http://www.epcc.edu/Programs/Occed/default.htm). (Internet document.); and TSTC's list of technology programs (http://surf.tstc.edu/~rpursley/techs/techsys.html).

25 V.T.C.A., Education Code, SS132.

26 U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration Fact Sheet, "Trade Adjustment Assistance" (http://www.doleta.gov/programs/factsht/taa.htm). (Internet document.)

27 "El Paso gets grant for retraining workers," Austin American-Statesman (May 8, 1998).