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ENDNOTES

1 From 1970 to 1990, the four northern Mexico states bordering Texas enjoyed a 3.9 percent annual growth rate in non-agricultural jobs as compared to a 3.2 percent growth rate for Texas. David E. Lorey, United States-Mexico Border Statistics since 1900, 1990 Update (Latin American Center, University of California, Los Angeles, California, 1993), Tables S701 and S702, pp. 77-80.

2 The Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act of 1930 imposed some of the highest tariffs ever on U.S. imports in an effort to revive the nation's economy following the stock market crash in 1929. Unfortunately, these tariffs invited retaliation by our trading partners, an exacerbation of the economic conditions leading to the Great Depression.

3 Carey McWilliams, North From Mexico: The Spanish-speaking People of the United States, new ed. updated by Matt S. Meier (New York: Praeger, 1990), p. 177.

4 "Maquila Scoreboard," Twin Plant magazine (November 1997), p. 45.

5 University of Texas at Austin, Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, U.S.-Mexico Free Trade Agreement: Economic Impact on Texas (Austin, Texas 1992), p. 12.

6 Office of the President of the United States, "Study on the Operation and Effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement," (July 1997), pp. i-iv.

7 Facsimile from Curtis Kooser, Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, February 10, 1998.

8 William C. Velasquez Institute, "NAFTA Report Card January 1, 1994-April 30, 1997," Montebello, California, Summer 1997. (Press release.)

9 Total net natural increase expected in the 43 Border counties from 1995 to 2020 is 1,335,699. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the 1997 population estimates for Montana (878,810) and Wyoming (479,743) together amount to 1,358,553.

10 Maine (1,242,051), Nebraska (1,656,870), Nevada (1,676,809), New Hampshire (1,172,709), New Mexico (1,729,751), North Dakota (640,883), Rhode Island (987,429), South Dakota (737,973), Utah (2,059,148), Vermont (588,978), West Virginia (1,815,787), and Wyoming (479,743).

11 This analysis uses the Public Use Micro Sample (PUMS) database from the 1990 Census, U.S. Department of Commerce. The area defined as the Border differs slightly from that used in the other parts of this report in two important respects. In this analysis the region is defined using combinations of Public Use Micro Areas (PUMAs), which generally correspond to the counties south of I-10 and west of I-37 definition. However, this analysis does not include the San Antonio area as part of the Border.

12 For purposes of comparison to later figures, these averages were computed by using the percentage of the number of individuals in 17 income categories. The midpoint of the income range was used to calculate average income. Also, technically, the income cited in the 1990 Census is for calendar 1989.

13 The methodology used to successively adjust the statewide average to reflect the demographic profile of the Border region involved determining the relevant statewide average income for selected subgroups of the population, then re-calculating the statewide average using these sub-group averages but weighted by the proportion of the population in the Border region with the subgroup characteristic. In other words, this method recomputes the statewide average based on the profile of the population prevalent in the Border.

14 Robert G. Cushing, "Immigration and Economic Participation: Does Citizenship Matter?," paper presented at the Immigration and the Economy Conference, 3rd International Economic Forum sponsored by the El Paso Branch of the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, El Paso, November 14, 1997.

15 The groups used in this analysis included the four age groups and five educational attainment levels noted in Table 2.5, as well as categories for immigration status (including the native-born, those arriving in the country after 1980, between 1970 and 1980, and before 1970).

16 In this analysis of the wage gap, to successively adjust the statewide average to reflect conditions in the Border region requires the calculation of sub-group averages for each factor considered. This required the use of 80 subgroup averages to adjust for just three factors--age, educational attainment, and immigration status. To control for other influences beyond this would cause the number of sub-groups needed to rise to levels beyond that which could reliably be used to compute meaningful averages. This methodological limitation does not imply that other influences which could further explain the wage gap between the state and the Border do not exist.

17 For a summary of other studies with similar findings see Rand Center for Research on Immigration Policy, Rand Corporation, "The Effects of Immigration on the Employment and Wages of Native Workers: Evidence from the 1970s and 1980s," by Robert F. Schoeni (Santa Monica, California, March 1997).

18 Based on the 1990 PUMS data for the Border region.

19 Lorey, United States-Mexico Border Statistics since 1900, 1990 Update, Table S129, pp. 53-54.

20 Tourism-related industries are defined here as retail trade, personal services, or entertainment. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, "1990 Census of Population and Housing: Public Use Microdata Samples, December 1995," CD-ROM, (CD90-PUMSA7-R, Washington, D.C.).

21 Since agricultural receipts and farm income can fluctuate considerably from year to year, it is best to average these figures over several years in order to gauge long-term trends. Agricultural cash receipts and farm income data for the Border region and Texas are derived from U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, Bureau of Economic Analysis, "Regional Economic Information System 1969-95," CD-ROM.